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D5540

Sigma-Aldrich

Diaphorase from Clostridium kluyveri

lyophilized powder, 3.0-20.0 units/mg protein (biuret)

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Synonym(s):
Diaphorase, Lipoamide Dehydrogenase, Lipoyl Dehydrogenase
CAS Number:
Enzyme Commission number:
EC Number:
MDL number:
NACRES:
NA.54

biological source

bacterial (Clostridium kluyveri)

Quality Level

form

lyophilized powder

specific activity

3.0-20.0 units/mg protein (biuret)

shipped in

wet ice

storage temp.

−20°C

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This Item
D2197K1502SAE0049
L-Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDHA) from human, recombinant, expressed in E. coli, aqueous solution

SAE0049

L-Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDHA)

specific activity

3.0-20.0 units/mg protein (biuret)

specific activity

>=30 units/mg protein (biuret)

specific activity

0.1-1.0 units/mg protein (Lowry)

specific activity

-

form

lyophilized powder

form

solid

form

buffered aqueous glycerol solution

form

aqueous solution

shipped in

wet ice

shipped in

-

shipped in

dry ice

shipped in

dry ice

storage temp.

−20°C

storage temp.

−20°C

storage temp.

−20°C

storage temp.

−20°C

Quality Level

200

Quality Level

200

Quality Level

200

Quality Level

200

Application

Diaphorase from Clostridium kluyveri, or Lipoyl dehydrogenase, has been used in a study to assess the protein-protein interactions in assembly of lipoic acid on the 2-oxoacid dehydrogenases of aerobic metabolism. Lipoyl dehydrogenase has also been used in a study to investigate the redox regulation of tyrosine nitration and 3-nitrotyrosine reduction by antioxidants.
Methylene blue (MB)-containing polyacrylamide nanoparticle platforms (NPs) were tested in solution with diaphorase from Clostridium kluyveri and the cofactor NADH. this test done done to check whether the encapsulation of MB in NPs could prevent the reduction of MB, and thus protect its photodynamic effectiveness. The enzyme from Sigma has been used along with aldehyde dehydrogenase to construct a biosensor for acetaldehyde by immobilization. It has also been used in the reoxidation of NADP to NADPH. This reaction simultaneously catalyzed the conversion of resazurin into the highly fluorescent resorufin, and also allowed the detection of minute amounts of NAADP. NAADP was initially converted to NADP and NADPH by other enzymes.

Packaging

Sold on the basis of native diaphorase units.

Other Notes

The name "Diaphorase" has been loosely applied to several enzymes which catalyze the oxidation of either β-NADH or β-NADPH in the presence of an electron acceptor such as methylene blue or 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol. Many different assay procedures and "units" are used.
Diaphorases which are specific for either β-NADH or β-NADPH are known. The pig heart enzyme of Straub seems to have native diaphorase (β-NADH specific) as well as lipoic and lipoamide dehydrogenase activities. It is reported to be a single protein. However, Massey reports that "diaphorase" is probably a denatured lipoamide dehydrogenase. Pre-incubation of the pig heart preparation with Cu2+ reduces the lipoamide dehydrogenase activity and proportionately increases the β-NADH diaphorase activity. In our laboratory, we have demonstrated this copper effect to some degree on the pig heart enzyme, but no appreciable effect was observed on the Clostridium kluyveri or torula yeast preparations. The lipoamide dehydrogenase:diaphorase ratio is a measure of the denaturation.

Unit Definition

One unit of either "diaphorase" or "lipoyl" dehydrogenase will oxidize 1.0 μmole of β-NADH per min at pH 7.5 at 25 °C, with the corresponding reduction of 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol

inhibitor

Product No.
Description
Pricing

Storage Class

11 - Combustible Solids

wgk_germany

WGK 3

flash_point_f

Not applicable

flash_point_c

Not applicable

ppe

Eyeshields, Gloves, type N95 (US)


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Bioelectronic sniffer with a diaphragm flow-cell for acetaldehyde vapor.
Mitsubayashi K, et al.
Sensors and Actuators B, Chemical, 95(1-3), 303-308 (2003)
Daniel Demus et al.
Glycobiology, 32(3), 230-238 (2021-12-24)
Maturity-onset diabetes of the young due to hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 alpha variants (HNF1A-MODY) causes monogenic diabetes. Individuals carrying damaging variants in HNF1A show decreased levels of α1-3,4 fucosylation, as demonstrated on antennary fucosylation of blood plasma N-glycans. The excellent diagnostic
Andreas Gasser et al.
The Journal of biological chemistry, 281(25), 16906-16913 (2006-04-22)
Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is the most potent activator of Ca2+ release from intracellular stores known today. Although recent reports have suggested an important function of NAADP in human T lymphocytes, direct evidence for receptor-induced formation of NAADP
Hauh-Jyun Candy Chen et al.
Chembiochem : a European journal of chemical biology, 9(2), 312-323 (2007-12-29)
Covalent modifications of proteins by endogenous reactive nitrogen oxide species lead to cytotoxic effects that are implicated in diseases associated with chronic infections and inflammation. Tyrosine nitration is a major post-translational modification of proteins by reactive nitrogen oxide species. Recent
Kirti Rani et al.
Indian journal of biochemistry & biophysics, 43(2), 98-104 (2006-09-08)
3alpha-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3alpha-HSD) from Pseudomonas testosteronei and diaphorase (lipoyl dehydrogenase) from Clostridium spp were immobilized individually onto alkylamine glass beads through glutaraldehyde coupling. A cost-effective enzymic colorimetric method for determination of bile acid in the serum and bile was developed

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