Although actin is one of the most conserved eukaryotic proteins, it is expressed as six isoforms characterized by electrophoresis and amino acid sequence analysis. Four of the six isoforms represent differentiation markers of muscle tissues. The other two are found
The Interleukins comprise a disparate group of cytokines and growth factors that are produced by and released from leukocytes. Interleukin-1β (1L-1β) is released primarily from stimulated macrophages and monocytes and plays a key role in inflammatory and immune responses and
Troponin together with tropomyosin, regulate the binding of myosin to actin. Troponin is a trimeric protein composed of Troponin subunits I, C and T. Troponin C binds calcium ions, Troponin T binds to tropomyosin and troponin I binds
The amount of cholesterol that is synthesized in the liver is tightly regulated by dietary cholesterol levels. LDL receptors regulate the cellular transport of lipid rich low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles.
Vimentin is an intermediate filamentous cytosketetal protein found in cells of mesenchymal origin. Vimentin typically exists as a coiled-coil dimer that interacts with another dimers to form a tetrameric complex that forms cytoskeletal protein sheets
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a family of closely related growth factors having a conserved pattern of eight cysteine residues and sharing common VEGF receptors. VEGF-A (VEGF) is a potent growth factor for blood vessel endothelial cells, showing pleiotropic
Heterotrimeric G proteins, comprising α, β and γ subunits, respond to extracellular signals generated by activated seven-transmembrane (7TM) receptors by modulating intracellular effector proteins such as enzymes and ion channels.
Myelin Associated Glycoprotein (MAG) is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein containing five Ig-like domains in its extracellular domain. It is an adhesion molecule belonging to the immunoglobin superfamily.
Acetylcholine is synthesized from acetyl coenzyme A and choline by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase. In addition to its synthesis in the liver, choline employed in acetylcholine production is derived from dietary sources.
Learn about O-linked glycan strategies, such as the actions of O-glycosidase, how to remove di and trisialylation sialic acid residues, β-linked galactose, and N-acetylglucosamine, as well as other O-glycan modifications.
The basic structure of peptidoglycan (PGN) contains a carbohydrate backbone of alternating units of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and Nacetylmuramic acid, with the N-acetylmuramic acid residues cross-linked to peptides.
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) is principally found stored in three main cell types - i) serotonergic neurons in the CNS and in the intestinal myenteric plexus, ii) enterochromaffin cells in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract, and iii) in blood platelets. Metabolism
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and mediate acetylcholine actions in the CNS and non-nervous tissues. Learn more about acetylcholine receptors and their role in cell signaling.
Dopamine-β-hydroxylase is located inside amine storage vesicles of norepinephrine neurons. Dopamine is actively transported from the cytoplasm into the vesicles. As the enzyme is a copper containing protein, its activity can be inhibited by copper chelating agents, such as diethyldithiocarbamate
Either monoamine oxidase A (MAO) or catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) can catalyze the first step in catecholamine catabolism. The potentially toxic aldehyde intermediate generated in the MAO reaction (3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde for dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde for norepinephrine) is either rapidly reduced to an alcohol (by
The focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase. FAK has been implicated as a downstream signaling molecule that functions in the control of several integrin-regulated biological processes.