Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, late-onset neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a selective neuronal cell death in the cortex and striatum leading to cognitive dysfunction, motor impairment and behavioral changes.
Phase I biotransformation reactions introduce or expose functional groups on the drug with the goal of increasing the polarity of the compound. Although Phase I drug metabolism occurs in most tissues, the primary and first pass site of metabolism occurs
The extracellular (ECM) microenvironment, defined by biochemical cues and physical cues, is a deciding factor in a wide range of cellular processes including cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, and expression of phenotype-specific functions. For this reason, engineering the ECM microenvironment provides
Dopamine-β-hydroxylase is located inside amine storage vesicles of norepinephrine neurons. Dopamine is actively transported from the cytoplasm into the vesicles. As the enzyme is a copper containing protein, its activity can be inhibited by copper chelating agents, such as diethyldithiocarbamate
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) is principally found stored in three main cell types - i) serotonergic neurons in the CNS and in the intestinal myenteric plexus, ii) enterochromaffin cells in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract, and iii) in blood platelets. Metabolism
Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) designates a class of enzymes that hydrolyze the sn-2 ester of glycerophospholipids to produce a fatty acid and a lysophospholipid. It has become clear that some of these enzymes liberate arachidonic acid in mammalian cells for the
Protein-based drug transporters are found in most tissues including liver, kidney, intestine, and brain. These transporters are particularly important in cancer treatment and multi-drug resistance research. Understanding the specific mechanisms of tumor cell transporters is becoming an essential aspect of