The possible causes and potential remedies for poor or inconsistent transfer of proteins from a gel to the Western blot membrane. Optimal transfer conditions may vary depending on the molecular weight of the protein of interest.
Antibodies will combine with specific antigens to generate an exclusive antibody-antigen complex. Learn about the nature of this bond, and the use of this robust and specific binding as a molecular tag for research.
Subcellular localization studies are important for mapping and characterizing proteins and thus for better understanding of the cellular functions of the proteins. By confocal microscopy analysis on human cell lines, spatial and temporal protein expression patterns can be visualized on
The possible causes and potential remedies for challenges encountered in the immunoprecipitation-Western blot technique, which consists of cell lysis, formation of the antibody-antigen (immune) complex, precipitation of the immune complexes, and analysis by Western blotting.
The possible causes and potential remedies for challenges encountered during preparation of samples for SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) and optimizing electrophoresis conditions.
The Auto2D® 2-D Electrophoresis Device fully automates difficult 2D electrophoresis methods in a quick, easy, and reproducible way. Locate difficult-to-find proteins using the Auto2D® system in less than two hours with high reproducibility.
Prior to probing a membrane using precious antibodies, it is helpful to visualize the transferred proteins on the blot to ensure complete transfer and even loading. This page describes possible causes and potential remedies for challenges encountered during protein visualization.
To meet the great diversity of protein analysis needs, Sigma offers a wide selection of protein visualization (staining) reagents. EZBlue™ and ProteoSilver™, designed specifically for proteomics, also perform impressively in traditional PAGE formats.
Microtubules of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton are composed of a heterodimer of α- and β-tubulin. In addition to α-and β-tubulin, several other tubulins have been identified, bringing the number of distinct tubulin classes to seven.
This page describes common challenges encountered when lysing cells and extracting proteins prior to Western blotting. Total protein concentration must be determined for these cell lysates. Variables affecting each of these steps are outlined below, as each could affect the
The Human Protein Atlas; Prestige Antibodies®; Polyclonals and Monoclonals; Clinical Markers; Antibodies used in Breast Cancer Research; Antibodies Against MammaPrint and Other Gene Expression Test Proteins; Antibodies Identified in the Human Protein Atlas; Finding Cancer Biomarkers, as Exemplified by RBM3
Visualize the spatial distribution of proteins in cells using the Cell Atlas part of the Human Protein Atlas. For each protein, there are multiple immunofluorescent staining images in a vast number of cell lines.