MilliporeSigma

Response of Rhizobium to Cd exposure: A volatile perspective.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) (2017-09-03)
Paulo Cardoso, Magda Santos, Rosa Freitas, Sílvia M Rocha, Etelvina Figueira
ABSTRACT

The volatile metabolome of Rhizobium sp. strain E20-8 exposed to three concentrations of cadmium (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 μM) was screened using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-ToFMS), combined with headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). Cd exposure induced a global increase in the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) both intra and extracellularly. Peak areas of several linear alkanes, ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, terpenic and volatile sulfur compounds, and one ester (ethyl acetate), were especially increased when compared with the control condition (no Cd). These compounds might originate from the metabolization of toxic membrane peroxidation products, the proteolysis of oxidized proteins or the alteration of metabolic pathways, resulting from the oxidative stress imposed by Cd. Several VOCs are related to oxidative damage, but the production of VOCs involved in antioxidant response (menthol, α-pinene, dimethyl sulfide, disulfide and trisulfide, 1-butanol and 2-butanone) and in cell aggregation (2,3-butanedione, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-butanone) is also observed. These results bring new information that highlights the role of VOCs on bacteria response to Cd stress, identify a novel set of biomarkers related with metal stress and provide information to be applied in biotechnological and remediation contexts.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), df 100 μm(PDMS, needle size 24 ga, for use with manual holder
Supelco
SPME Sampling Stand, for use with 15 mL vials
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS), df 85 μm(CAR/PDMS, needle size 24 ga, StableFlex, for use with autosampler
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Divinylbenzene/Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS), needle size 24 ga, StableFlex
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), df 100 μm(PDMS, for use with manual holder, needle size 23 ga
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Divinylbenzene/Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS), needle size 24 ga, for use with manual holder
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), df 7 μm(PDMS, needle size 23 ga, for use with autosampler
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly polyacrylate (PA), df 85 μm(PA, for use with autosampler, needle size 23 ga
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Divinylbenzene/Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS), needle size 23 ga, StableFlex, for use with manual holder or autosampler, fiber L 2 cm
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Divinylbenzene/Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS), needle size 23 ga, StableFlex, for use with autosampler
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS), df 85 μm(CAR/PDMS, needle size 23 ga, StableFlex, for use with autosampler
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly polyacrylate (PA), df 85 μm(PA, for use with manual holder, needle size 24 ga
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), df 30 μm(PDMS, needle size 24 ga, for use with autosampler
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS), df 75 μm(CAR/PDMS, needle size 23 ga, for use with autosampler
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS), df 75 μm(CAR/PDMS, needle size 23 ga, for use with manual holder
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), df 100 μm(PDMS, for use with autosampler, needle size 24 ga
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly polyacrylate (PA), df 85 μm(PA, for use with autosampler, needle size 24 ga
Supelco
SPME Portable Field Sampler, coating CAR/PDMS
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS), df 85 μm(CAR/PDMS, needle size 24 ga, for use with manual holder, StableFlex fiber
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), df 30 μm(PDMS, needle size 24 ga, for use with manual holder
Supelco
SPME Sampling Stand, for use with 4 mL vials
Supelco
SPME Portable Field Sampler, coating PDMS
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), metal alloy fiber, df 100 μm(PDMS, needle size 23 ga, for use with autosampler
Supelco
SPME-OC Fiber Assembly, Polydimethylsiloxane/Divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB), df 75 μm(Coating thickness includes 65 μm coating + 10 μm OC (overcoating), needle size 23 ga, pkg of 3 ea, fiber L 1 cm
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS), df 85 μm(CAR/PDMS, for use with autosampler, needle size 23 ga, metal alloy fiber
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Divinylbenzene/Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS), for use with autosampler, needle size 23 ga, metal alloy fiber, fiber L 1 cm
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Divinylbenzene/Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS), for use with autosampler, needle size 23 ga, metal alloy fiber, fiber L 2 cm
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS), df 75 μm(CAR/PDMS, for use with manual holder, needle size 24 ga
Supelco
SPME Portable Field Sampler, coating PDMS/DVB
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), df 7 μm(PDMS, needle size 24 ga, for use with manual holder