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  • Identification of impurities and the statistical classification of methamphetamine using headspace solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Identification of impurities and the statistical classification of methamphetamine using headspace solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Forensic science international (2005-09-29)
Kenji Kuwayama, Kenji Tsujikawa, Hajime Miyaguchi, Tatsuyuki Kanamori, Yuko Iwata, Hiroyuki Inoue, Shuji Saitoh, Tohru Kishi
ABSTRACT

The profiling of impurities in methamphetamine (MA) using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is described. The extraction of the impurities with an SPME fiber was examined under varying conditions. Optimal chromatograms were obtained when a 50 mg MA sample at 85 degrees C for 30 min was extracted using a fiber coated with divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane. MA samples from nine different origins were analyzed under optimized extraction conditions. Compounds related to MA such as benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, amphetamine, benzyl methyl ketone, cis- and trans-1,2-dimethyl-3-phenylaziridine, dimethylamphetamine, N-acetylamphetamine, N-acetylmethamphetamine and N-formylmethamphetamine were detected in the chromatograms. Trace amounts of ethanol, diethyl ether and acetic acid were also detected in some of the chromatograms. The numbers and intensities of the peaks detected were different, depending on the sample. After the areas of the eight principal peaks were converted to their square root and logarithm, similarities among the samples were evaluated by Euclidian distance, cosine distance and correlation coefficient. The results showed that a combination of logarithmic conversion and cosine distance was the most suitable for discriminating and classifying the samples. HS-SPME/GC-MS is a simple and effective method for the extraction and identification of impurities. The present method, in combination with an appropriate statistical analysis, would be useful for developing a profile of impurities in MA.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Supelco
Carboxen® 1000 Reversible SPE Tube, 200 mg/mL, pk 30
Supelco
Carboxen® Adsorbent, matrix Carboxen® 569, 20-45 mesh, bottle of 500 g
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Divinylbenzene/Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS), for use with autosampler, needle size 23 ga, metal alloy fiber, fiber L 1 cm
Supelco
Carboxen® Adsorbent, matrix Carboxen® 564, 20-45 mesh, pack of 144 × 290 mg
Supelco
Carboxen®-1010 PLOT Capillary GC Column, L × I.D. 30 m × 0.32 mm, average thickness 15 μm
Supelco
Carboxen®-1006 PLOT Capillary GC Column, L × I.D. 30 m × 0.32 mm, average thickness 15 μm
Supelco
Carboxen® Adsorbent, matrix Carboxen® 564, 20-45 mesh, bottle of 10 g
Supelco
Carboxen®-1010 PLOT Capillary GC Column, L × I.D. 30 m × 0.53 mm, average thickness 30 μm
Supelco
Carboxen® Adsorbent, matrix Carboxen® 569, 20-45 mesh, bottle of 10 g
Supelco
Carboxen® Adsorbent, matrix Carboxen® 1000, 60-80 mesh, bottle of 10 g
Supelco
Tenax® TA / Carboxen® 1018, glass TD tube, preconditioned, O.D. × L 1/4 in. × 3 1/2 in., Sealed with (Swagelok® End-Fittings), pkg of 10 ea
Supelco
Carboxen® Adsorbent, matrix Carboxen® 1000, 40-60 mesh, bottle of 50 g
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS), df 85 μm(CAR/PDMS, for use with autosampler, needle size 23 ga, metal alloy fiber
Supelco
Carboxen® Adsorbent, matrix Carboxen® 572, 20-45 mesh, bottle of 10 g
Supelco
Carboxen®-1006 PLOT Capillary GC Column, L × I.D. 30 m × 0.53 mm, average thickness 30 μm
Supelco
Carboxen® Adsorbent, matrix Carboxen® 563, 20-45 mesh, bottle of 10 g
Supelco
Carboxen® Adsorbent, matrix Carboxen® 1003, 40-60 mesh, bottle of 10 g
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS), df 75 μm(CAR/PDMS, for use with manual holder, needle size 24 ga
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Divinylbenzene/Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS), needle size 23 ga, StableFlex, for use with autosampler
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS), df 85 μm(CAR/PDMS, needle size 24 ga, for use with manual holder, StableFlex fiber
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Divinylbenzene/Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS), needle size 24 ga, StableFlex, for use with autosampler
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS), df 85 μm(CAR/PDMS, needle size 24 ga, StableFlex, for use with autosampler
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Divinylbenzene/Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS), for use with autosampler, needle size 23 ga, metal alloy fiber, fiber L 2 cm
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Divinylbenzene/Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS), needle size 24 ga, for use with manual holder
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS), df 75 μm(CAR/PDMS, needle size 23 ga, for use with autosampler
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS), df 75 μm(CAR/PDMS, needle size 24 ga, for use with autosampler
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Divinylbenzene/Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS), needle size 24 ga, StableFlex
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Divinylbenzene/Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS), needle size 23 ga, StableFlex, for use with manual holder or autosampler, fiber L 2 cm
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS), df 85 μm(CAR/PDMS, needle size 23 ga, StableFlex, for use with autosampler
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS), df 75 μm(CAR/PDMS, needle size 23 ga, for use with manual holder