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  • Exocytosis-Mediated Urinary Full-Length Megalin Excretion Is Linked With the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Nephropathy.

Exocytosis-Mediated Urinary Full-Length Megalin Excretion Is Linked With the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Nephropathy.

Diabetes (2017-03-16)
Shankhajit De, Shoji Kuwahara, Michihiro Hosojima, Tomomi Ishikawa, Ryohei Kaseda, Piyali Sarkar, Yusuke Yoshioka, Hideyuki Kabasawa, Tomomichi Iida, Sawako Goto, Koji Toba, Yuki Higuchi, Yoshiki Suzuki, Masanori Hara, Hiroyuki Kurosawa, Ichiei Narita, Yoshiaki Hirayama, Takahiro Ochiya, Akihiko Saito
ABSTRACT

Efficient biomarkers for diabetic nephropathy (DN) have not been established. Using ELISA, we found previously that urinary levels of full-length megalin (C-megalin), a multiligand endocytic receptor in proximal tubules, was positively correlated with DN progression in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Here, we found that urinary extracellular vesicle (UEV) excretion and C-megalin content in UEVs or in their exosomal fraction increased along with the progression of the albuminuric stages in patients with T2DM. Cultured immortalized rat proximal tubule cells (IRPTCs) treated with fatty acid-free BSA or advanced glycation end product-modified BSA (AGE-BSA), endocytic ligands of megalin, increased EV excretion, and their C-megalin content. C-megalin excretion from IRPTCs via extracellular vesicles was significantly blocked by an exosome-specific inhibitor, GW4869, indicating that this excretion is mainly exocytosis-mediated. AGE-BSA treatment of IRPTCs caused apparent lysosomal dysfunction, which stimulated multivesicular body formation, resulting in increased exosomal C-megalin excretion. In a high-fat diet-induced, megalin-mediated kidney injury model in mice, urinary C-megalin excretion also increased via UEVs. Collectively, exocytosis-mediated urinary C-megalin excretion is associated with the development and progression of DN in patients with T2DM, particularly due to megalin-mediated lysosomal dysfunction in proximal tubules, and hence it could be a candidate biomarker linked with DN pathogenesis.

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Anti-Mouse IgG (whole molecule)–Gold antibody produced in goat, affinity isolated antibody, aqueous glycerol suspension, 5 nm (colloidal gold)