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  • Targeting G protein-coupled receptor signaling at the G protein level with a selective nanobody inhibitor.

Targeting G protein-coupled receptor signaling at the G protein level with a selective nanobody inhibitor.

Nature communications (2018-05-20)
Sahil Gulati, Hui Jin, Ikuo Masuho, Tivadar Orban, Yuan Cai, Els Pardon, Kirill A Martemyanov, Philip D Kiser, Phoebe L Stewart, Christopher P Ford, Jan Steyaert, Krzysztof Palczewski
ABSTRACT

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) activate heterotrimeric G proteins by mediating a GDP to GTP exchange in the Gα subunit. This leads to dissociation of the heterotrimer into Gα-GTP and Gβγ dimer. The Gα-GTP and Gβγ dimer each regulate a variety of downstream pathways to control various aspects of human physiology. Dysregulated Gβγ-signaling is a central element of various neurological and cancer-related anomalies. However, Gβγ also serves as a negative regulator of Gα that is essential for G protein inactivation, and thus has the potential for numerous side effects when targeted therapeutically. Here we report a llama-derived nanobody (Nb5) that binds tightly to the Gβγ dimer. Nb5 responds to all combinations of β-subtypes and γ-subtypes and competes with other Gβγ-regulatory proteins for a common binding site on the Gβγ dimer. Despite its inhibitory effect on Gβγ-mediated signaling, Nb5 has no effect on Gαq-mediated and Gαs-mediated signaling events in living cells.

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