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  • Probing the binding mechanism of capecitabine to human serum albumin using spectrometric methods, molecular modeling, and chemometrics approach.

Probing the binding mechanism of capecitabine to human serum albumin using spectrometric methods, molecular modeling, and chemometrics approach.

Bioorganic chemistry (2019-06-19)
S Fatemeh Mousavi, Mohammad Hossein Fatemi
ABSTRACT

Capecitabine as a prodrug of 5-Fluorouracil plays an important role in the treatment of breast and gastrointestinal cancers. Herein, in view of the importance of this drug in chemotherapy, interaction mechanism between Capecitabine (CAP) and human serum albumin (HSA) as a major transport protein in the blood circulatory system has been investigated by using a combination of spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods. The fluorescence spectroscopic results revealed that capecitabine could effectively quench the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA through a static quenching mechanism. Evaluation of the thermodynamic parameters suggested that the binding process was spontaneous while hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces played a major role in this interaction. The value of the binding constant (Kb = 1.820 × 104) suggested a moderate binding affinity between CAP and HSA which implies its easy diffusion from the circulatory system to the target tissue. The efficiency of energy transfer and the binding distance between the donor (HSA) and acceptor (CAP) were determined according to forster theory of nonradiation energy transfer as 0.410 and 4.135 nm, respectively. Furthermore, UV-Vis spectroscopic results confirmed that the interaction was occurred between HSA and CAP and caused conformational and micro-environmental changes of HSA during the interaction. Multivariate curve resolution-alternating least square (MCR-ALS) methodology as an efficient chemometric tool was used to separate the overlapped spectra of the species. The MCR-ALS result was exploited to estimate the stoichiometry of interaction and to provide concentration and structural information about HSA-CAP interactions. Molecular docking studies suggested that CAP binds mainly to the subdomain IIA of HSA, which were compatible with those obtained by experimental data. Finally, molecular dynamics simulation (MD) was performed on the best docked complex by considering the permanence and flexibility of HSA-CAP complex in the binding site. MD result showed that CAP could steadily bind to HSA in the site I based on the formation of hydrogen bond and π-π stacking interaction in addition to hydrophobic force.