• Comprehensive two-dimensional monolithic liquid chromatography of polar compounds.

Comprehensive two-dimensional monolithic liquid chromatography of polar compounds.

Journal of separation science (2018-11-30)
Pavel Jandera, Tomáš Hájek, Zuzana Šromová

Two-dimensional liquid chromatography largely increases the number of separated compounds in a single run, theoretically up to the product of the peaks separated in each dimension on the columns with different selectivities. On-line coupling of a reversed-phase column with an aqueous normal-phase (hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography) column yields orthogonal systems with high peak capacities. Fast on-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography needs a capillary or micro-bore column providing low-volume effluent fractions transferred to a short efficient second-dimension column for separation at a high mobile phase flow rate. We prepared polymethacrylate zwitterionic monolithic micro-columns in fused silica capillaries with structurally different dimethacrylate cross-linkers. The columns provide dual retention mechanism (hydrophilic interaction and reversed-phase). Setting the mobile phase composition allows adjusting the separation selectivity for various polar substance classes. Coupling on-line an organic polymer monolithic capillary column in the first dimension with a short silica-based monolithic column in the second dimension provides two-dimensional liquid chromatography systems with high peak capacities. The silica monolithic C18 columns provide higher separation efficiency than the particle-packed columns at the flow rates as high as 5 mL/min used in the second dimension. Decreasing the diameter of the silica monolithic columns allows using a higher flow rate at the maximum operation pressure and lower fraction volumes transferred from the first, hydrophilic interaction dimension, into the second, reversed-phase mode, avoiding the mobile phase compatibility issues, improving the resolution, increasing the peak capacity, and the peak production rate.