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  • Resistance of the human immunodeficiency virus to the inhibitory action of negatively charged albumins on virus binding to CD4.

Resistance of the human immunodeficiency virus to the inhibitory action of negatively charged albumins on virus binding to CD4.

AIDS research and human retroviruses (1999-12-02)
C Cabrera, M Witvrouw, A Gutiérrez, B Clotet, M E Kuipers, P J Swart, D K Meijer, J Desmyter, E De Clercq, J A Esté
ABSTRACT

Negatively charged albumins (NCAs) have been identified as potent inhibitors of HIV-1 replication in vitro. Time of addition studies suggest that succinylated and aconitylated human serum albumin (Suc-HSA and Aco-HSA) act at an early stage of the virus life cycle, and surface plasmon resonance (BIAcore) experiments have confirmed a direct interaction of NCAs with HIV-1 gp120. Resistance to Suc-HSA and Aco-HSA was analyzed by characterizing HIV-1 variants that were selected in cell culture after serial passage of the NL4-3 strain in the presence of the compounds. After 24 passages (126 days) we isolated variants that were resistant to Suc-HSA (>27-fold) and Aco-HSA (37-fold), as compared with the wild-type NL4-3 virus. The binding of the NCA-resistant HIV strains to CD4+ MT-4 cells could no longer be inhibited by either Suc- or Aco-HSA. The emergence of mutations in the envelope gp120 of the resistant virus paralleled the emergence of the resistant phenotype. The Suc-HSA-resistant strain was 100-fold cross-resistant to the G quartet-containing oligonucleotide AR177 (Zintevir, an HIV-binding inhibitor), and partially cross-resistant to dextran sulfate, but remained sensitive to the bicyclam AMD3100 and the chemokine SDF-1alpha, which block HIV replication by interaction with the chemokine receptor CXCR4. Furthermore, neither Suc-HSA nor Aco-HSA inhibited the binding of monoclonal antibodies 12G5 and 2D7 (directed to CXCR4 and CCR5, respectively) in SUPT-1 cells or THP-1 cells. These results confirm that NCAs bind primarily to gp120 and do not interact directly with the HIV chemokine receptor but block the binding of the virus particles (through gp120) with CD4+ cells.

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2,6-Difluorobenzaldehyde, 98%