• Targeting cellular microtubule by phytochemical apocynin exhibits autophagy-mediated apoptosis to inhibit lung carcinoma progression and tumorigenesis.

Targeting cellular microtubule by phytochemical apocynin exhibits autophagy-mediated apoptosis to inhibit lung carcinoma progression and tumorigenesis.

Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology (2019-12-31)
Santanu Paul, Subhendu Chakrabarty, Suvranil Ghosh, Debasish Nag, Amlan Das, Debabrata Ghosh Dastidar, Moumita Dasgupta, Naibedya Dutta, Mandavi Kumari, Mahadeb Pal, Gopal Chakrabarti

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Several targets have been identified for lung cancer therapy, amongst which 'Microtubule' and its dynamics are the most widely studied and used in therapy. Tubulin-microtubule polymer dynamics are highly sought after targets in the field of anti-cancer drug designing. Natural compounds are important sources for developing anticancer therapeutics owing to their efficacy and lower cytotoxicity. Evidence suggested that therapeutic targeting of microtubule by natural compounds is amongst the most widely used interventions in numerous cancer therapies including lung cancer. To determine the efficacy of apocynin (a natural compound) in suppressing the progression of lung carcinoma both in vitro and in vivo, along with the identification of targets and the underlying mechanism for developing a novel therapeutic approach. We have demonstrated themicrotubule depolymerizing role of apocynin by established protocols in cellular and cell-free system. The efficacy of apocynin to inhibit lung carcinoma progression was studied on A549 cells.The tumoricidal ability of apocynin was studied in BALB/c mice model as well.Mice were classified into 4 groups namely-group II mice as tumor control; group III-IV mice asalso tumor-induced but treated with differential apocynin doses whereas group I mice were kept as normal. Apocynin, showed selective cytotoxicity towards lung cancer cells rather than normal lung fibroblast cells. Apocynin inhibited oncogenic properties including growth, proliferation (p < 0.05), colony formation (p < 0.05), invasion (p < 0.05) and spheroid formation (p < 0.05) in lung cancer cells. Apart from other established properties, apocynin was found to be a novel and potent component to bind with tubulin and depolymerize cellular microtubule network. Apocynin mediated cellular microtubule depolymerization was the driving mechanism to trigger autophagy-mediated apoptotic cell death (p < 0.05) which in turn retarded lung cancer progression. Furthermore, apocynin showed tumoricidal characteristics to inhibit lung tumorigenesis in mice as well. Targeting tubulin-microtubule equilibrium with apocynin could be the key regulator to catastrophe cellular catabolic processes to mitigate lung carcinoma. Thus, apocynin could be a potential therapeutic agent for lung cancer treatment.

Product Number
Product Description

3-Methyladenine, autophagy inhibitor
N-Acetyl-L-cysteine, Sigma Grade, ≥99% (TLC), powder
Dansylcadaverine, BioReagent, suitable for fluorescence, ≥99.0% (HPLC)
Protease Inhibitor Cocktail, for use with mammalian cell and tissue extracts, DMSO solution
Immobilon®-PSQ PVDF Membrane, 1 roll, 27 cm x 3.75 m, 0.2 µm pore size, Hydrophobic PVDF Transfer Membrane for western blotting.
Paclitaxel, from Taxus brevifolia, ≥95% (HPLC), powder
Colchicine, ≥95% (HPLC), powder
Colchicine, BioReagent, suitable for plant cell culture, ≥95% (HPLC)
4-(Methylnitrosoamino)-1-(3-pyridinyl)-1-butanone, analytical standard