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  • Identification of Histone H3 and H4 Amino Acid Residues Important for the Regulation of Arsenite Stress Signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Identification of Histone H3 and H4 Amino Acid Residues Important for the Regulation of Arsenite Stress Signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Chemical research in toxicology (2020-02-08)
Pilendra Kumar Thakre, Upendarrao Golla, Ashis Biswas, Raghuvir Singh Tomar
ABSTRACT

Arsenic is an environmental carcinogen that causes many diseases in humans, including cancers and organ failures, affecting millions of people in the world. Arsenic trioxide is a drug used for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). In the present study, we screened the synthetic histone H3 and H4 library in the presence of arsenite to understand the role of histone residues in arsenic toxicity. We identified residues of histone H3 and H4 crucial for arsenite stress response. The residues H3T3, H3G90, H4K5, H4G13, and H4R95 are required for the activation of Hog1 kinase in response to arsenite exposure. We showed that a reduced level of Hog1 activation increases the intracellular arsenic content in these histone mutants through the Fps1 channel. We have also noticed the reduced expression of ACR3 exporter in the mutants. The growth defect of mutants caused by arsenite exposure was suppressed in hyperosmotic conditions, in a higher concentration of glucose, and upon deletion of the FPS1 gene. The arsenite sensitive histone mutants also showed a lack of H3K4 methylation and reduced H4K16 acetylation. Altogether, we have identified the key residues in histone H3 and H4 proteins important for the regulation of Hog1 signaling, Fps1 activity, and ACR3 expression during arsenite stress.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Arsenic(III) oxide, ReagentPlus®, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide 2′-phosphate reduced tetrasodium salt hydrate, ≥93% (HPLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Glutathione Reductase from baker's yeast (S. cerevisiae), ammonium sulfate suspension, 100-300 units/mg protein (biuret)
Sigma-Aldrich
2-Vinylpyridine, 97%