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  • A hydrogen peroxide-activated Cu(II) pro-ionophore strategy for modifying naphthazarin as a promising anticancer agent with high selectivity for generating ROS in HepG2 cells over in L02 cells.

A hydrogen peroxide-activated Cu(II) pro-ionophore strategy for modifying naphthazarin as a promising anticancer agent with high selectivity for generating ROS in HepG2 cells over in L02 cells.

Free radical biology & medicine (2019-12-06)
Xia-Zhen Bao, Qi Wang, Xiao-Rong Ren, Fang Dai, Bo Zhou
ABSTRACT

Targeting redox vulnerability of cancer cells by pro-oxidants capable of generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) has surfaced as an important anticancer strategy. Due to the intrinsic narrow therapeutic window and other dangerous side effects of ROS generation, it is highly needed and challenging to develop pro-oxidative anticancer agents (PAAs) with high selectivity for generating ROS in cancer cells. Herein we report a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-activated Cu(II) pro-ionophore strategy to develop naphthazarin (Nap) as such type of PAAs based on the H2O2-mediated conversion of boronate to free phenol. The boronate-protected Nap (PNap) can exploit increased levels of H2O2 in HepG2 cells to in situ release Nap followed by its efflux via conjugation with reduced glutathione (GSH), allowing that the Nap-GSH adduct works as a Cu(II) ionophore to induce continuously GSH depletion via a reduction-dependent releasing of Cu(I) by GSH. This strategy endows PNap with the unprecedented ability to hit multi-redox characteristics (increased levels of H2O2, GSH and copper) of HepG2 cells, leading to ROS generation preferentially in HepG2 cells along with their selective death.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Intracellular Hydrogen Peroxide Assay, sufficient for 200 fluorometric tests (green fluorescence)
Sigma-Aldrich
2′,7′-Dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, ≥97%
Sigma-Aldrich
2-Vinylpyridine, 97%