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  • Alleviating effects of reduced graphene oxide against lead-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in human alveolar epithelial (A549) cells.

Alleviating effects of reduced graphene oxide against lead-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in human alveolar epithelial (A549) cells.

Journal of applied toxicology : JAT (2020-03-29)
Maqusood Ahamed, Mohd Javed Akhtar, M A Majeed Khan, Hisham A Alhadlaq
ABSTRACT

Broad application of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and ubiquitous lead (Pb) pollution may increase the possibility of combined exposure of humans. Information on the combined effects of rGO and Pb in human cells is scarce. This work was designed to explore the potential effects of rGO on Pb-induced toxicity in human alveolar epithelial (A549) cells. Prepared rGO was polycrystalline in nature. The formation of a few layers of visible creases and silky morphology due to high aspect ratio was confirmed. Low level (25 μg/mL) of rGO was not toxic to A549 cells. However, Pb exposure (25 μg/mL) induced cell viability reduction, lactate dehydrogenase enzyme leakage with rounded morphology in A549 cells. Remarkably, Pb-induced cytotoxicity was significantly mitigated by rGO co-exposure. Pb-induced mitochondrial membrane potential loss, cell cycle arrest and higher activity of caspase-3 and -9 enzymes were also alleviated by rGO co-exposure. Moreover, we observed that Pb exposure causes generation of pro-oxidants (e.g., reactive oxygen species, hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation) and antioxidant depletion (e.g., glutathione and antioxidant enzymes). In addition, the effects of Pb on pro-oxidant and antioxidant markers were significantly reverted by GO co-exposure. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry suggested that due to the adsorption of Pb on rGO sheets, accessibility of Pb ions for A549 cells was limited. Hence, rGO reduced the toxicity of Pb in A549 cells. This research warrants further study to work on detailed underlying mechanisms of the mitigating effects of rGO against Pb-induced toxicity on a molecular level.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Pentostatin, ≥95% (HPLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Intracellular Hydrogen Peroxide Assay, sufficient for 200 fluorometric tests (green fluorescence)