• Cholesterol derivatives induce dephosphorylation of the histone deacetylases Rpd3/HDAC1 to upregulate autophagy.

Cholesterol derivatives induce dephosphorylation of the histone deacetylases Rpd3/HDAC1 to upregulate autophagy.

Autophagy (2020-02-06)
Wenmei Wu, Man Luo, Kang Li, Yichen Dai, Huiyu Yi, Yangjin Zhong, Yang Cao, Gianluca Tettamanti, Ling Tian

Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are important for global gene expression and contribute to numerous physiological events. Deacetylase Rpd3 in yeast and its conserved homolog HDAC1 in mammals oppositely regulate autophagy; however, how Rpd3/HDAC1 is regulated to mediate autophagy remains unclear. Here, we showed autophagy occurrence in silkworm (Bombyx mori) required BmRpd3, wherein steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) signaling regulated its protein level and nuclear localization negatively. Inhibition of MTOR led to dephosphorylation and nucleo-cytoplasmic translocation of BmRpd3/HsHDAC1. Besides, cholesterol, 20E, and 27-hydroxycholesterol could all induce massive dephosphorylation and cytoplasmic localization of BmRpd3/HsHDAC1, and thus autophagy by affecting MTORC1 activity. In addition, three phosphorylation sites (Ser392, Ser421, and Ser423) identified in BmRpd3 were conserved in HsHDAC1. Single or triple phosphorylation-site mutation attenuated the phosphorylation levels of BmRpd3/HsHDAC1, leading to their cytoplasmic localization and autophagy activation. In general, cholesterol derivatives, especially hydroxylated cholesterol, caused dephosphorylation and nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of BmRpd3/HsHDAC1 through inhibition of MTOR signaling to facilitate autophagy in B. mori and mammals. These findings improve our understandings of BmRpd3/HsHDAC1-mediated autophagy induced by cholesterol derivatives and shed light on their potential as a therapeutic target for neurodegenerative diseases and autophagy-related studies.Abbreviations: 20E: 20-hydroxyecdysone; 27-OH: 27-hydroxycholesterol; ACTB: actin beta; AMPK: AMP-activated protein kinase; Atg: autophagy-related; BmSqstm1: Bombyx sequestosome 1; CQ: chloroquine; HDAC: histone deacetylase; LMNB: Lamin B1; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; PE: phosphatidylethanolamine; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; TUBA1A: tubulin alpha 1a.

Product Number
Product Description

Chloroquine diphosphate salt, powder or crystals, 98.5-101.0% (EP)
Dorsomorphin, ≥98% (HPLC)
20-Hydroxyecdysone, ≥93% (HPLC), powder
Grace′s Insect Medium, With L-glutamine, without sodium bicarbonate, powder, suitable for insect cell culture