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  • Caged Dexamethasone/Quercetin Nanoparticles, Formed of the Morphogenetic Active Inorganic Polyphosphate, are Strong Inducers of MUC5AC.

Caged Dexamethasone/Quercetin Nanoparticles, Formed of the Morphogenetic Active Inorganic Polyphosphate, are Strong Inducers of MUC5AC.

Marine drugs (2021-01-31)
Meik Neufurth, Xiaohong Wang, Shunfeng Wang, Heinz C Schröder, Werner E G Müller
ABSTRACT

Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is a widely distributed polymer found from bacteria to animals, including marine species. This polymer exhibits morphogenetic as well as antiviral activity and releases metabolic energy after enzymatic hydrolysis also in human cells. In the pathogenesis of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the platelets are at the frontline of this syndrome. Platelets release a set of molecules, among them polyP. In addition, the production of airway mucus, the first line of body defense, is impaired in those patients. Therefore, in this study, amorphous nanoparticles of the magnesium salt of polyP (Mg-polyP-NP), matching the size of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, were prepared and loaded with the secondary plant metabolite quercetin or with dexamethasone to study their effects on the respiratory epithelium using human alveolar basal epithelial A549 cells as a model. The results revealed that both compounds embedded into the polyP nanoparticles significantly increased the steady-state-expression of the MUC5AC gene. This mucin species is the major mucus glycoprotein present in the secreted gel-forming mucus. The level of gene expression caused by quercetin or with dexamethasone, if caged into polyP NP, is significantly higher compared to the individual drugs alone. Both quercetin and dexamethasone did not impair the growth-supporting effect of polyP on A549 cells even at concentrations of quercetin which are cytotoxic for the cells. A possible mechanism of the effects of the two drugs together with polyP on mucin expression is proposed based on the scavenging of free oxygen species and the generation of ADP/ATP from the polyP, which is needed for the organization of the protective mucin-based mucus layer.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Dexamethasone 21-phosphate disodium salt, ≥98%
Sigma-Aldrich
Mucin from bovine submaxillary glands, Type I-S
Sigma-Aldrich
Quercetin, ≥95% (HPLC), solid
Sigma-Aldrich
Anti-MUC5AC antibody produced in rabbit, Prestige Antibodies® Powered by Atlas Antibodies, affinity isolated antibody, buffered aqueous glycerol solution
Sigma-Aldrich
Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide, 98%