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  • Echinomycin mitigates ocular angiogenesis by transcriptional inhibition of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1.

Echinomycin mitigates ocular angiogenesis by transcriptional inhibition of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1.

Experimental eye research (2021-02-28)
Flavia Plastino, Álvaro Santana-Garrido, Noemi Anna Pesce, Monica Aronsson, Emma Lardner, Alfonso Mate, Anders Kvanta, Carmen Maria Vázquez, Helder André
ABSTRACT

Echinomycin (EKN), an inhibitor of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 DNA-binding activity, has been implied as a possible therapeutic agent in ischemic diseases. Here, we assess EKN in hypoxia-driven responses in vitro using human primary adult retinal pigment epithelium cells (aRPE) and retinal endothelial cells (hREC), and in vivo using the laser-induced mouse choroidal neovascularization (CNV) model. Effects of EKN on hypoxia-mediated pathways in aRPE were analyzed by Western blotting for HIF-1α protein, quantitative PCR of HIF-target genes, and proteome array for soluble angiogenic factors. In vitro inhibition of angiogenesis by EKN was determined in hREC. In vivo inhibition of angiogenesis by EKN was determined in the mouse laser-induced CNV, as a model of HIF-associated ocular neovascularization. CNV lesion area was determined by fundus fluorescein angiography. aRPE treated with EKN showed hypoxia-dependent significantly decreased cell recovery in the wound healing assay. These results were supported by lower levels of HIF-mediated transcripts detected in hypoxic aRPE cells treated with EKN compared with non-treated controls, and confirmed by proteome profiler for angiogenic factors. hREC exposed to aRPE EKN-conditioned medium displayed reduced sprouting angiogenesis. Mice with laser-induced CNV treated with intravitreally injected EKN showed significantly decreased vascular lesion area when compared with a mouse equivalent of aflibercept, or vehicle-treated controls. Our data proposes EKN as a potent inhibitor of HIF-mediated angiogenesis in retinal cells and in the mouse model of CNV, which could have future implications in the treatment of patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

MATERIALS
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Product Description

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Anti-VEGF165 antibody, Mouse monoclonal, clone VG-20, purified from hybridoma cell culture
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