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  • Evaluating the trans fatty acid, CLA, PUFA and erucic acid diversity in human milk from five regions in China.

Evaluating the trans fatty acid, CLA, PUFA and erucic acid diversity in human milk from five regions in China.

Lipids (2009-02-03)
Jing Li, Yawei Fan, Zhiwu Zhang, Hai Yu, Yin An, John K G Kramer, Zeyuan Deng
ABSTRACT

Human milk was obtained from 97 healthy lactating women from five different regions in China. Twenty-four hour dietary questionnaire identified the foods consumed that showed distinct differences in food types between cities. The southern and central regions had higher levels of total trans fatty acids (TFA) and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) in human milk than the northern region. The major isomers in human milk from the northern region were vaccenic and rumenic acids, whereas the other regions had a random distribution of these isomers. This was consistent with the isomer distribution in the refined vegetable oils used and their increased formation during high temperature stir-frying. The human milk composition showed little evidence that partially hydrogenated fats were consumed, except eight mothers in Guangzhou who reported eating crackers, plus four other mothers. The TFA concentration in these human milk samples was higher (2.06-3.96%). The amount of n-6 (1.70-2.24%) and n-3 (0.60-1.47%) highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) in human milk and the resultant ratio (1.43-2.95) showed all mothers in China had an adequate supply of HUFA in their diet. Rapeseed oil was consumed evidenced by erucic acids in human milk. The levels of erucic acid were below internationally accepted limits for human consumption. The levels of undesirable TFA and CLA isomers in human milk are a concern. Efforts to decrease the practice of high temperature stir-frying using unsaturated oils, and a promotion to increase consumption of dairy and ruminant products should be considered in China.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Erucic acid, ≥99% (capillary GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Erucic acid, technical, ~90% (GC)
Supelco
Erucic acid, analytical standard