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  • Carbon-sensitized and nitrogen-doped TiO2 for photocatalytic degradation of sulfanilamide under visible-light irradiation.

Carbon-sensitized and nitrogen-doped TiO2 for photocatalytic degradation of sulfanilamide under visible-light irradiation.

Water research (2011-08-02)
Penghua Wang, Tao Zhou, Rong Wang, Teik-Thye Lim
ABSTRACT

A novel carbon-sensitized and nitrogen-doped TiO2 (C/N-TiO2) was synthesized by a facile sol-gel method using titanium butoxide as both titanium precursor and carbon source, and nitric acid as nitrogen source. The calcination temperature had a great effect on the crystal phase structure, nitrogen incorporation into the TiO2 lattice and content of carbonaceous species. The incorporated carbonaceous species could serve as photosensitizer, while the nitrogen doping could lead to the remarkable red shift of absorption edge of C/N-TiO2. The C/N-TiO2 calcinated at 300 °C (T300) exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity for sulfanilamide (SNM) degradation under irradiation of visible-light-emitting diode (vis-LED). The SNM photocatalytic degradation and mineralization were more efficient in acidic conditions due to the carbon photosensitizing effect. Insignificant inhibitory effects were observed in the presence of chloride, nitrate and sulfate, while bicarbonate, phosphate and silica could inhibit the SNM mineralization to different degrees. Acetate, ammonium and sulfate were released during SNM mineralization. T300 exhibited good photochemical stability and could be reused for 5 times with less than 10% decrease in the SNM removal efficiency. The acute toxicity of SNM solution could be reduced over prolonged photocatalysis according to the Microtox assay.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Sulfanilamide, ≥98%
Supelco
Sulfanilamide, VETRANAL®, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Sulfanilamide, puriss. p.a., ≥98% (calc. to the dried substance)
Supelco
Sulfanilamide melting point standard, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material