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  • Chronic pulmonary LPS tolerance induces selective immunosuppression while maintaining the neutrophilic response.

Chronic pulmonary LPS tolerance induces selective immunosuppression while maintaining the neutrophilic response.

Shock (Augusta, Ga.) (2009-06-03)
Sudha Natarajan, Jiyoun Kim, Daniel G Remick
ABSTRACT

LPS challenge causes potent activation of innate immunity. Because LPS is ubiquitously present in ambient air, repeated inhalation may lead to activation of the pulmonary immune response. If this activation is unregulated, chronic LPS inhalation would lead to persistent inflammation and organ damage. We hypothesized that the lung uses the mechanism of LPS tolerance to maintain the balance between hypoinflammatory and hyperinflammatory states. We developed a model of chronic pulmonary LPS tolerance induced by pulmonary exposure to 1 microg LPS for 4 consecutive days. Mice were challenged with 10 microg of LPS 24 h later. TNF-alpha protein was significantly decreased in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of tolerant versus nontolerant mice, whereas IL-6 levels were significantly increased in the tolerant group. Tolerant mice were also protected from airway hyperresponsiveness. M2 and M3 muscarinic receptor mRNA was significantly decreased in the lungs of tolerant mice, suggesting a mechanism for the decreased airway hyperresponsiveness. CXCL2 was significantly reduced in tolerant mice, but CXCL1 was equivalent between groups. No difference was seen in neutrophil recruitment to the alveolar space. Interestingly, LPS tolerance does not confer cross-tolerance to the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 stimulus Pam3Cys. TNF-alpha and IL-6 concentrations were significantly increased in LPS-tolerant mice challenged with Pam3Cys; however, chemokine concentrations were unaffected. Our data show that repeated LPS inhalation results in differential regulation of cytokines but does not inhibit neutrophil recruitment. This unrestricted neutrophil recruitment may represent a mechanism by which individuals may be protected from pulmonary bacterial infection and pneumonia.

MATERIALS
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Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Pam3-Cys-OH, ≥98.0% (TLC)