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  • Chronic fluoxetine exposure alters movement and burrowing in adult freshwater mussels.

Chronic fluoxetine exposure alters movement and burrowing in adult freshwater mussels.

Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) (2014-01-21)
Peter D Hazelton, Bowen Du, Samuel P Haddad, Andrea K Fritts, C Kevin Chambliss, Bryan W Brooks, Robert B Bringolf
ABSTRACT

The antidepressant fluoxetine is commonly found in aquatic fauna living near or downstream from point-sources of municipal waste effluent. Continuous release of fluoxetine results in increased effective exposure duration in surface waters, resulting in a chronic exposure for animals downstream, particularly in effluent dominated ecosystems. Fluoxetine is known to cause disruptions in reproductive behavior of freshwater mussels (order Unionoida), including stimulating release of gametes, parturition of glochidia (larvae), and changes in lure display and foot protrusion. However, the ecological relevance of these effects at environmental concentrations is unknown. We conducted a 67-d exposure of adult Lampsilis fasciola to fluoxetine concentrations of 0, 0.5, 2.5, and 22.3μg/L and assessed impacts on behavior (lateral movement, burrowing, and filtering) and metabolism (glycogen storage and respiration). Mussels treated with 2.5 and 22.3μg/L fluoxetine displayed mantle lures significantly (p<0.05) more than controls. Animals treated with 22.3μg/L fluoxetine were statistically more likely to have shorter time-to-movement, greater total movement, and initiate burrowing sooner than control animals. These observations suggest that increased activity of mussels exposed to fluoxetine may result in increased susceptibility to predators and may lead to a reduction in energy stores.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Supelco
Fluoxetine hydrochloride solution, 1.0 mg/mL in methanol (as free base), ampule of 1 mL, certified reference material, Cerilliant®
Sigma-Aldrich
Glycogen from mussel, Mytilus genus, for DNA precipitations
Sigma-Aldrich
Glycogen from mussel, Mytilus genus, ≥85% anhydrous basis (enzymatic)
Sigma-Aldrich
Glycogen from bovine liver, ≥85% dry basis (enzymatic)
Sigma-Aldrich
Glycogen from oyster, ≥75% dry basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Glycogen from rabbit liver, ≥85% dry basis (enzymatic)