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  • Polysaccharide-synthesizing glycosyltransferases and carbohydrate binding modules: the case of starch synthase III.

Polysaccharide-synthesizing glycosyltransferases and carbohydrate binding modules: the case of starch synthase III.

Protein and peptide letters (2013-01-05)
Diego F Gomez-Casati, Mariana Martín, María V Busi
ABSTRACT

Glycosyltransferases (GTs) are a ubiquitous group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of sugar moieties from activated donor molecules to specific acceptor molecules, forming glycosidic bonds. Nucleotide-sugars, lipid phosphate sugars and phosphate sugars can act as activated donor molecules while acceptor substrates involve carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, DNA and also, numerous small molecules (i. e. antibiotics, flavonols, steroids). GTs enzyme families are very ancient. They are founded in all the three domains of life and display three different folds (named GT-A, GTB and GT-C) which are a variant of a common α/β scaffold. In addition, several GTs contain an associated non-catalytic carbohydrate binding module (CBM) that could be critical for enzyme activity. This work reviews the current knowledge on the GTs structures and functions and highlights those enzymes that contain CBMs, particularly starch binding domains (SBDs). In addition, we also focus on A. thaliana starch synthase III enzyme, from the GT-5 family. This protein has a GT-B fold, and contains in its N-terminal region three in tandem SBDs, which are essential for the regulation of enzyme activity.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Starch, puriss. p.a., from potato, reag. ISO, reag. Ph. Eur., soluble
Sigma-Aldrich
Starch from potato, Soluble
Sigma-Aldrich
Starch from potato, Powder
Sigma-Aldrich
Starch from corn
Sigma-Aldrich
Starch from potato, suitable for electrophoresis
Supelco
Starch from corn, analytical standard, analytical standard for Starch Assay Kits SA-20 and STA-20
Sigma-Aldrich
Starch from rice
Sigma-Aldrich
Starch from wheat, Unmodified
Sigma-Aldrich
Starch from corn, Unmodified waxy corn starch of essentially pure amylopectin; contains only trace amounts of amylose.
Supelco
Starch from corn, for use with Total Dietary Fiber Control Kit, TDF-C10
Sigma-Aldrich
Starch, from potato, tested according to Ph. Eur.
Sigma-Aldrich
Starch from corn, practical grade