• Liquid polymer nano-PEBBLEs for Cl- analysis and biological applications.

Liquid polymer nano-PEBBLEs for Cl- analysis and biological applications.

The Analyst (2003-12-12)
Murphy G Brasuel, Terry J Miller, Raoul Kopelman, Martin A Philbert

The first nanometer scale anion sensing fluorescent spherical nanosensors, or PEBBLEs (probes encapsulated by biologically localized embedding) have been developed for the intracellular monitoring of chloride. The general scheme for the polymerization and introduction of sensing components creates a matrix that allows for the utilization of the highly selective ionophores used in poly(vinyl chloride) and poly(decyl methacrylate) ion-selective electrodes. We have demonstrated that our previously developed scheme for cation sensors can be utilized to tailoring selective submicron sensors for use in intracellular measurements of biologically relevant anions for which selective enough fluorescent probes do not exist. Three schemes were attempted for the development of chloride sensitive PEBBLEs. The first two used the Chloride ionophore indium(III) octaethylporphyrin chloride (In(OEP)Cl) (1) as an ionophore working in tandem with a chromoionophore and (2) as a chromoionophore with a peak shift generated by chloride mediated breaking of hydroxide ion-bridged porphyrin dimer. The third method used the optically silent Chloride ionophore III (ETH 9033) working in tandem with chromoionophore III (ETH 5350) to indirectly monitor Cl- activity by reporting the H+ coextracted into the matrix. Method 3 gave the most promising results, at a pH of 7.2 these PEBBLEs have a limit of detection of 0.2 mM Cl- with a linear dynamic range of 0.4 mM-190 mM Cl-. These PEBBLEs were delivered into C6 glioma cells, utilizing a gene gun, and intracellular chloride levels were monitored during ion-channel stimulation by kainic acid.

Product Number
Product Description

Chloride ionophore III, Selectophore