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  • Transcriptional regulation of the human P450 oxidoreductase gene: hormonal regulation and influence of promoter polymorphisms.

Transcriptional regulation of the human P450 oxidoreductase gene: hormonal regulation and influence of promoter polymorphisms.

Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) (2011-03-12)
Meng Kian Tee, Ningwu Huang, Izabella Damm, Walter L Miller
ABSTRACT

P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the flavoprotein that acts as the obligatory electron donor to all microsomal P450 enzymes, including those involved in hepatic drug metabolism as well as three steroidogenic P450 enzymes. The untranslated first exon of human POR was located recently, permitting analysis of human POR transcription. Expression of deletional mutants containing up to 3193 bp of the human POR promoter in human adrenal NCI-H295A and liver Hep-G2 cells located the proximal promoter at -325/-1 bp from the untranslated exon. Common human POR polymorphisms at -208 and -173 had little influence on transcription, but the polymorphism at -152 reduced transcription significantly in both cell lines. EMSA and supershift assays identified binding of Smad3/Smad4 between -249 and -261 and binding of thyroid hormone receptor-β (TRβ) at -240/-245. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that Smad3, Smad4, TRα, TRβ, and estrogen receptor-α were bound between -374 and -149. Cotransfection of vectors for these transcription factors and POR promoter-reporter constructs into both cell types followed by hormonal treatment showed that T(3) exerts major tropic effects via TRβ, with TRα, estrogen receptor-α, Smad3, and Smad4 exerting lesser, modulatory effects. T(3) also increased POR mRNA in both cell lines. Thyroid hormone also is essential for rat liver POR expression but acts via different transcription factor complexes. These are the first data on human POR gene transcription, establishing roles for TRβ and Smad3/4 in its expression and indicating that the common polymorphism at -152 may play a role in genetic variation in steroid biosynthesis and drug metabolism.