• Identification of learning and memory genes in canine; promoter investigation and determining the selective pressure.

Identification of learning and memory genes in canine; promoter investigation and determining the selective pressure.

Molecular biology reports (2014-09-07)
Reihane Seifi Moroudi, Ali Akbar Masoudi, Rasoul Vaez Torshizi, Mohammad Zandi

One of the important behaviors of dogs is trainability which is affected by learning and memory genes. These kinds of the genes have not yet been identified in dogs. In the current research, these genes were found in animal models by mining the biological data and scientific literatures. The proteins of these genes were obtained from the UniProt database in dogs and humans. Not all homologous proteins perform similar functions, thus comparison of these proteins was studied in terms of protein families, domains, biological processes, molecular functions, and cellular location of metabolic pathways in Interpro, KEGG, Quick Go and Psort databases. The results showed that some of these proteins have the same performance in the rat or mouse, dog, and human. It is anticipated that the protein of these genes may be effective in learning and memory in dogs. Then, the expression pattern of the recognized genes was investigated in the dog hippocampus using the existing information in the GEO profile. The results showed that BDNF, TAC1 and CCK genes are expressed in the dog hippocampus, therefore, these genes could be strong candidates associated with learning and memory in dogs. Subsequently, due to the importance of the promoter regions in gene function, this region was investigated in the above genes. Analysis of the promoter indicated that the HNF-4 site of BDNF gene and the transcription start site of CCK gene is exposed to methylation. Phylogenetic analysis of protein sequences of these genes showed high similarity in each of these three genes among the studied species. The dN/dS ratio for BDNF, TAC1 and CCK genes indicates a purifying selection during the evolution of the genes.

Product Number
Product Description

γ-Aminobutyric acid, analytical standard
Histamine, analytical standard
Vigabatrin impurity D, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Tyrosine, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Histamine, ≥97.0%
γ-Aminobutyric acid, ≥99%
γ-Aminobutyric acid, BioXtra, ≥99%
Diethyl azodicarboxylate solution, 40 wt. % in toluene
Oxytocin, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
Oxytocin, lyophilized powder, ~15 IU/mg solid (Prepared from synthetic oxytocin)
Adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate tris salt, ≥97% (HPLC), powder
Adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate, ≥98.5% (HPLC), powder
Oxytocin, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard