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  • In vivo activities of simulated human doses of cefepime and cefepime-AAI101 against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae.

In vivo activities of simulated human doses of cefepime and cefepime-AAI101 against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae.

Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy (2015-02-26)
Jared L Crandon, David P Nicolau
ABSTRACT

The combination of cefepime with AAI101, a novel extended-spectrum β-lactamase inhibitor, possesses potent in vitro activity against many resistant Gram-negative pathogens. Against a panel of 20 mostly carbapenemase-producing cefepime-nonsusceptible strains of the family Enterobacteriaceae, we evaluated the MICs of cefepime in the presence of various fixed AAI101 concentrations (1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 mg/liter) and the in vivo efficacy of simulated human doses of cefepime and cefepime-AAI101 in a neutropenic murine thigh infection model. At 2 h after inoculation, mice were dosed with regimens that provided a profile mimicking the free drug concentration-time profile observed in humans given cefepime at 2 g every 8 h (q8h; as a 30-min infusion) or cefepime-AAI101 at 2 g/0.5 g q8h (as a 30-min infusion). Efficacy was determined by calculation of the change in thigh bacterial density (log10 number of CFU) after 24 h relative to the starting inoculum (0 h). After 24 h, bacterial growth of 2.7 ± 0.1 log10 CFU (mean ± standard error) was observed in control animals. Efficacy for cefepime monotherapy was observed against only 3 isolates, whereas increases in bacterial density similar to that in the control animals were noted for the remaining 17 strains (all with cefepime MICs of ≥ 64 mg/liter). The humanized cefepime-AAI101 dosing regimen resulted in bacterial reductions of ≥ 0.5 log10 CFU for 12 of the 20 strains. Evaluation of efficacy as a function of the fraction of the dosing interval during which free drug concentrations were above the MIC determined with different fixed concentrations of AAI101 suggested that a fixed concentration of 8 mg/liter AAI101 is most predictive of in vivo activity for the studied regimen.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Cyclophosphamide monohydrate, bulk package
Sigma-Aldrich
Cyclophosphamide monohydrate, ISOPAC®