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  • In situ formation of the amino sugars 1-amino-1-deoxy-fructose and 2-amino-2-deoxy-glucose under Maillard reaction conditions in the absence of ammonia.

In situ formation of the amino sugars 1-amino-1-deoxy-fructose and 2-amino-2-deoxy-glucose under Maillard reaction conditions in the absence of ammonia.

Food chemistry (2015-12-01)
Ossanna Nashalian, Varoujan A Yaylayan
ABSTRACT

Replacing amino acids with their binary metal complexes during the Maillard reaction can initiate various processes, including the oxidative degradation of their glucose conjugates, generating 1-amino-1-deoxy-fructose and its derivatives. These reactive amino sugars are not easily accessible under Maillard reaction conditions and are only formed in the presence of ammonia. To explore the generality of this observation and to study in particular the ability of fructose to generate glucosamine, the amino acid-metal complexes were heated in aqueous solutions with three aldohexoses and two ketohexoses at 110°C for 2 h and the dry residues were analysed by ESI/qTOF/MS/MS. All the sugars generated relatively intense ions at [M+H](+) 180 (C6H14NO5); those ions originating from ketohexoses exhibited MS/MS fragmentations identical to glucosamine and those originating form aldohexoses showed ions identical to fructosamine. Furthermore, the amino sugars were found to form fructosazine, react with other sugars and undergo dehydration reactions.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
D-(+)-Sorbose, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
D-(+)-Glyceraldehyde, ≥98.0% (HPLC), viscous