• Tyrosine nitration by peroxynitrite formed from nitric oxide and superoxide generated by xanthine oxidase.

Tyrosine nitration by peroxynitrite formed from nitric oxide and superoxide generated by xanthine oxidase.

The Journal of biological chemistry (2000-07-25)
T Sawa, T Akaike, H Maeda

Peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) is a potent nitrating and oxidizing agent that is formed by a rapid reaction of nitric oxide (NO) with superoxide anion (O(2)). It appears to be involved in the pathophysiology of many inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. It has recently been reported (Pfeiffer, S., and Mayer, B. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 27280-27285) that ONOO(-) generated at neutral pH from NO and O(2) (NO/O(2)) was substantially less efficient than preformed ONOO(-) at nitrating tyrosine. Here we re-evaluated tyrosine nitration by NO/O(2) with a shorter incubation period and a more sensitive electrochemical detection system. Appreciable amounts of nitrotyrosine were produced by ONOO(-) formed in situ (2.9 micrometer for 5 min; 10 nm/s) by NO/O(2) flux obtained from propylamine NONOate (CH(3)N[N(O)NO](-) (CH(2))(3)NH(2)(+)CH(3)) and xanthine oxidase using pterin as a substrate in phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 0.1 mm l-tyrosine. The yield of nitrotyrosine by this NO/O(2) flux was approximately 70% of that produced by the same flux of preformed ONOO(-) (2.9 micrometer/5 min). When hypoxanthine was used as a substrate, tyrosine nitration by NO/O(2) was largely eliminated because of the inhibitory effect of uric acid produced during the oxidation of hypoxanthine. Tyrosine nitration caused by NO/O(2) was inhibited by the ONOO(-) scavenger ebselen and was enhanced 2-fold by NaHCO(3), as would be expected, because CO(2) promotes tyrosine nitration. The profile of nitrotyrosine and dityrosine formation produced by NO/O(2) flux (2.9 micrometer/5 min) was consistent with that produced by preformed ONOO(-). Tyrosine nitration predominated compared with dityrosine formation caused by a low nanomolar flux of ONOO(-) at physiological concentrations of free tyrosine (<0.5 mm). In conclusion, our results show that NO generated with O(2) nitrates tyrosine with a reactivity and efficacy similar to those of chemically synthesized ONOO(-), indicating that ONOO(-) can be a significant source of tyrosine nitration in physiological and pathological events in vivo.

Product Number
Product Description

Xanthine Oxidase (XOD), from cow milk