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  • 3,3'-Bis(trisarylsilyl)-substituted binaphtholate rare earth metal catalysts for asymmetric hydroamination.

3,3'-Bis(trisarylsilyl)-substituted binaphtholate rare earth metal catalysts for asymmetric hydroamination.

Journal of the American Chemical Society (2006-03-16)
Denis V Gribkov, Kai C Hultzsch, Frank Hampel
ABSTRACT

Chiral 3,3'-bis(trisarylsilyl)-substituted binaphtholate rare earth metal complexes (R)-[Ln{Binol-SiAr3}(o-C6H4CH2NMe2)(Me2NCH2Ph)] (Ln = Sc, Lu, Y; Binol-SiAr3 = 3,3'-bis(trisarylsilyl)-2,2'-dihydroxy-1,1'-binaphthyl; Ar = Ph (2-Ln), 3,5-xylyl (3-Ln)) and (R)-[La{Binol-Si(3,5-xylyl)3}{E(SiMe3)2}(THF)2] (E = CH (4a), N (4b)) are accessible via facile arene, alkane, and amine elimination. They are efficient catalysts for the asymmetric hydroamination/cyclization of aminoalkenes, giving TOF of up to 840 h(-1) at 25 degrees C for 2,2-diphenyl-pent-4-enylamine (5c) using (R)-2-Y. Enantioselectivities of up to 95% ee were achieved in the cyclization of 5c with (R)-2-Sc. The reactions show apparently zero-order rate dependence on substrate concentration and first-order rate dependence on catalyst concentration, but rates depend on total amine concentrations. Activation parameters for the cyclization of pent-4-enylamine using (R)-2-Y (deltaH(S)(double dagger) = 57.4(0.8) kJ mol(-1) and deltaS(S)(double dagger) = -102(3) J K(-1) mol(-1); deltaH(R)(double dagger) = 61.5(0.7) kJ mol(-1) and deltaS(R)(double dagger) = -103(3) J K(-1) mol(-1)) indicate a highly organized transition state. The binaphtholate catalysts were also applied to the kinetic resolution of chiral alpha-substituted aminoalkenes with resolution factors f of up to 19. The 2,5-disubstituted aminopentenes were formed in 7:1 to > or = 50:1 trans diastereoselectivity, depending on the size of the alpha-substituent of the aminoalkene. Rate studies with (S)-1-phenyl-pent-4-enylamine ((S)-15e) gave the activation parameters for the matching (deltaH(double dagger) = 52.2(2.8) kJ mol(-1), deltaS(double dagger) = -127(8) J K(-1) mol(-1) using (S)-2-Y) and mismatching (deltaH(double dagger) = 57.7(1.3) kJ mol(-1), deltaS(double dagger) = -126(4) J K(-1) mol(-1) using (R)-2-Y) substrate/catalyst combination. The absolute configuration of the Mosher amide of (2S)-2-methyl-4,4-diphenyl-pyrrolidine and (2R)-methyl-(5S)-phenyl-pyrrolidinium chloride, prepared from (S)-15e, were determined by crystallographic analysis. Catalyst (R)-4a showed activity in the anti-Markovnikov addition of n-propylamine to styrene.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
(R)-(+)-3,3′-Bis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-1,1′-bi-2-naphthol, 95%
Sigma-Aldrich
(R)-3,3′-Bis(triphenylsilyl)-1,1′-bi-2-naphthol, 96%