MilliporeSigma
  • Drug detection in breath: effects of pulmonary blood flow and cardiac output on propofol exhalation.

Drug detection in breath: effects of pulmonary blood flow and cardiac output on propofol exhalation.

Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry (2011-06-07)
Svend Kamysek, Patricia Fuchs, Henny Schwoebel, Jan P Roesner, Sabine Kischkel, Kathi Wolter, Christian Loeseken, Jochen K Schubert, Wolfram Miekisch
ABSTRACT

Breath analysis could offer a non-invasive means of intravenous drug monitoring if robust correlations between drug concentrations in breath and blood can be established. In this study, propofol blood and breath concentrations were determined in an animal model under varying physiological conditions. Propofol concentrations in breath were determined by means of two independently calibrated analytical methods: continuous, real-time proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and discontinuous solid-phase micro-extraction coupled with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). Blood concentrations were determined by means of SPME-GC-MS. Effects of changes in pulmonary blood flow resulting in a decreased cardiac output (CO) and effects of dobutamine administration resulting in an increased CO on propofol breath concentrations and on the correlation between propofol blood and breath concentrations were investigated in seven acutely instrumented pigs. Discontinuous propofol determination in breath by means of alveolar sampling and SPME-GC-MS showed good agreement (R(2)=0.959) with continuous alveolar real-time measurement by means of PTR-MS. In all investigated animals, increasing cardiac output led to a deterioration of the relationship between breath and blood propofol concentrations (R(2)=0.783 for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and R(2)=0.795 for PTR-MS). Decreasing pulmonary blood flow and cardiac output through banding of the pulmonary artery did not significantly affect the relationship between propofol breath and blood concentrations (R(2)>0.90). Estimation of propofol blood concentrations from exhaled alveolar concentrations seems possible by means of different analytical methods even when cardiac output is decreased. Increases in cardiac output preclude prediction of blood propofol concentration from exhaled concentrations.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), metal alloy fiber, df 100 μm(PDMS, needle size 23 ga, for use with autosampler
Supelco
SPME-OC Fiber Assembly, Polydimethylsiloxane/Divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB), df 75 μm(Coating thickness includes 65 μm coating + 10 μm OC (overcoating), needle size 23 ga, pkg of 3 ea, fiber L 1 cm
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), df 7 μm(PDMS, needle size 24 ga, for use with manual holder
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), df 30 μm(PDMS, needle size 24 ga, for use with manual holder
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS), df 75 μm(CAR/PDMS, for use with manual holder, needle size 24 ga
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Divinylbenzene/Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS), needle size 24 ga, StableFlex, for use with autosampler
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), df 7 μm(PDMS, needle size 24 ga, for use with autosampler
Supelco
SPME Portable Field Sampler, coating CAR/PDMS
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), df 100 μm(PDMS, for use with autosampler, needle size 24 ga
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Divinylbenzene/Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS), needle size 24 ga, StableFlex
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), df 100 μm(PDMS, for use with manual holder, needle size 23 ga
Supelco
SPME Sampling Stand, for use with 15 mL vials
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Divinylbenzene/Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS), needle size 24 ga, for use with manual holder
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS), df 85 μm(CAR/PDMS, needle size 24 ga, StableFlex, for use with autosampler
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Divinylbenzene/Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS), needle size 23 ga, StableFlex, for use with manual holder or autosampler, fiber L 2 cm
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS), df 85 μm(CAR/PDMS, needle size 23 ga, StableFlex, for use with autosampler
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), df 7 μm(PDMS, needle size 23 ga, for use with autosampler
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Divinylbenzene/Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS), needle size 23 ga, StableFlex, for use with autosampler
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly polyacrylate (PA), df 85 μm(PA, for use with autosampler, needle size 23 ga
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly polyacrylate (PA), df 85 μm(PA, for use with autosampler, needle size 24 ga
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS), df 85 μm(CAR/PDMS, needle size 24 ga, for use with manual holder, StableFlex fiber
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS), df 75 μm(CAR/PDMS, needle size 23 ga, for use with autosampler
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), df 30 μm(PDMS, needle size 24 ga, for use with autosampler
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS), df 75 μm(CAR/PDMS, needle size 24 ga, for use with autosampler
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), df 100 μm(PDMS, for use with autosampler, needle size 23 ga
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS), df 75 μm(CAR/PDMS, needle size 23 ga, for use with manual holder
Supelco
SPME Portable Field Sampler, coating PDMS/DVB
Supelco
SPME Sampling Stand, for use with 4 mL vials
Supelco
SPME Portable Field Sampler, coating PDMS
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS), df 85 μm(CAR/PDMS, for use with autosampler, needle size 23 ga, metal alloy fiber