Spermatogenesis in many species including Drosophila melanogaster is accompanied by major reorganisation of chromatin in post-meiotic stages, involving a nearly genome-wide displacement of histones by protamines, Mst77F and Protamine-like 99C. A proposed prerequisite for the histone-to-protamine transition is massive histone H4 hyper-acetylation prior to the switch. Here, we investigated the pattern of histone H3 lysine acetylation and general lysine crotonylation in D. melanogaster spermiogenesis to elucidate a possible role of these marks in chromatin reorganisation. Lysine crotonylation was strongest prior to remodelling and the deposition of this mark depended on the acetylation status of the spermatid chromatin. In contrast to H4 acetylation, individual H3 acetylation marks displayed surprisingly distinct patterns during the histone-to-protamine transition. We observed that Nejire, a histone acetyl transferase, is expressed during the time of histone-to-protamine transition. Nejire knock down led to strongly reduced fertility, which correlated with misshaped spermatid nuclei and a lack of mature sperm. protA and prtl99C transcript levels were reduced after knocking down Nejire. ProtB-eGFP, Mst77F-eGFP and Prtl99C-eGFP were synthesized at the late canoe stage, while histones were often not detectable. However, in some cysts histones persist in parallel to protamines. Therefore, we hypothesize that complete histone removal requires multiple histone modifications besides H3K18ac and H3K27ac. In summary, H3K18 and H3K27 acetylation during Drosophila spermatogenesis is dependent on Nejire or a yet uncharacterized acetyl transferase. We show that Nejire is required for male fertility since Nejire contributes to efficient transcription of protA and prtl99C, but not Mst77F, in spermatocytes, and to maturation of sperm.