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  • Hypoxia-Dependent HIF-1 Activation Impacts on Tissue Remodeling in Graves' Ophthalmopathy-Implications for Smoking.

Hypoxia-Dependent HIF-1 Activation Impacts on Tissue Remodeling in Graves' Ophthalmopathy-Implications for Smoking.

The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism (2016-09-10)
Gina-Eva Görtz, Mareike Horstmann, Barbara Aniol, Buena Delos Reyes, Joachim Fandrey, Anja Eckstein, Utta Berchner-Pfannschmidt
ABSTRACT

In Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), inflammation with tissue expansion in a closed compartment like the bony orbit and smoking may cause tissue hypoxia. In this study, we investigated whether hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) action impacts on tissue remodeling in GO with the aim to identify possible new therapeutic targets. Orbital fibroblasts (OFs) were derived from GO patients and control (Ctrl) persons. We analyzed HIF-1α levels in response to hypoxia and cigarette smoke extract, as well as HIF-1-dependent vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release and adipogenic differentiation, by using HIF-1α small interfering RNA, or HIF-1 inhibitor BAY 87-2243. Western blot, real-time PCR, ELISA, and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze HIF-1α, VEGF, CD31, and adiponectin. Adipogenic differentiation was measured with Nile red assay. Higher HIF-1α levels in OFs were correlated with the clinical activity score of GO patients. Cigarette smoke extract elevated HIF-1α levels. HIF-1-dependent VEGF secretion was enhanced in GO-OF compared to Ctrl-OF, and as an in vivo consequence, we found a higher vessel density in GO tissue than in Ctrl tissue. Hypoxia strongly stimulated HIF-1-dependent adipogenesis and adiponectin release of GO-OF and enhanced TSH receptor-mediated adipogenesis. Hypoxia impacts on tissue remodeling in GO by stimulating angiogenesis and adipogenesis through activation of HIF-1-dependent pathways in OFs. Our results offer a molecular mechanism for the detrimental influence of smoking on GO and an explanation as to why decompression can improve the outcome of patients. Drug-targeted inhibition of HIF-1/VEGF may provide a therapeutic option to control tissue expansion in GO.

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Sigma-Aldrich
BAY 87-2243, ≥98% (HPLC)