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  • The role of free radical generation in increasing cerebrovascular permeability.

The role of free radical generation in increasing cerebrovascular permeability.

Free radical biology & medicine (2011-06-30)
Paul A Fraser
ABSTRACT

The brain endothelium constitutes a barrier to the passive movement of substances from the blood into the cerebral microenvironment, and disruption of this barrier after a stroke or trauma has potentially fatal consequences. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are formed during these cerebrovascular accidents, have a key role in this disruption. ROS are formed constitutively by mitochondria and also by the activation of cell receptors that transduce signals from inflammatory mediators, e.g., activated phospholipase A₂ forms arachidonic acid that interacts with cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase to generate ROS. Endothelial NADPH oxidase, activated by cytokines, also contributes to ROS. There is a surge in ROS following reperfusion after cerebral ischemia and the interaction of the signaling pathways plays a role in this. This review critically evaluates the literature and concludes that the ischemic penumbra is a consequence of the initial edema resulting from the ROS surge after reperfusion.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide 2′-phosphate reduced tetrasodium salt hydrate, ≥95% (HPLC)
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β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate sodium salt hydrate, powder
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β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced tetra(cyclohexylammonium) salt, ≥93%
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β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide 2′-phosphate reduced tetrasodium salt hydrate, ≥93% (HPLC)
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β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide 2′-phosphate reduced tetrasodium salt hydrate, ≥97% (HPLC)
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β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide 2′-phosphate reduced tetrasodium salt, vial of 10 mg, ~95%
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