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  • Preferential enhancement of GluN2B-containing native NMDA receptors by the endogenous modulator 24S-hydroxycholesterol in hippocampal neurons.

Preferential enhancement of GluN2B-containing native NMDA receptors by the endogenous modulator 24S-hydroxycholesterol in hippocampal neurons.

Neuropharmacology (2018-12-31)
Xiaofei Wei, Toshiya Nishi, Shinichi Kondou, Haruhide Kimura, Istvan Mody
ABSTRACT

24S-hydroxycholesterol (24HC) is the major metabolic breakdown product of cholesterol in the brain. Among its other effects on neurons, 24HC modulates N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA or GluN) receptors, but our understanding of this mechanism is poor. We used whole-cell patch clamp recordings and various pharmacological approaches in mouse brain slices to record isolated NMDAR-mediated (INMDA) tonic and evoked synaptic currents. 24HC (1 μΜ) significantly enhanced tonic, but not evoked, INMDA of dentate gyrus granule cells. The INMDA had both GluN2A and GluN2B-mediated components. Preincubation of the slices with PEAQX (a GluN2A antagonist) or Ro25-6981 (a GluN2B antagonist) dramatically changed the INMDA modulatory potential of 24HC. Ro25-6981 blocked the enhancing effect of 24HC on tonic INMDA, while preincubation with PEAQX had no effect. In cholesterol 24-hydroxylase (CYP46A1) knockout mice, in sharp contrast to WT, 24HC slightly decreased the tonic INMDA of granule cells. Furthermore, 24HC had no effect on tonic INMDA of dentate gyrus parvalbumin interneurons (PV-INs), known to express different GluN subunits than granule cells. Taken together, our results revealed a specific enhancement of GluN2B-containing NMDARs by 24HC, indicating a novel endogenous pathway to influence a subclass of NMDARs critically involved in cortical plasticity and in numerous neurological and psychiatric disorders.