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  • C-Nucleoside Formation in the Biosynthesis of the Antifungal Malayamycin A.

C-Nucleoside Formation in the Biosynthesis of the Antifungal Malayamycin A.

Cell chemical biology (2019-02-05)
Hui Hong, Markiyan Samborskyy, Yongjun Zhou, Peter F Leadlay
ABSTRACT

Malayamycin A is an unusual bicyclic C-nucleoside, with interesting antiviral, antifungal, and anticancer bioactivity. We report here the discovery and characterization of the biosynthetic pathway to malayamycin by using genome mining of near-identical clusters both from the known producer Streptomyces malaysiensis and from Streptomyces chromofuscus. The key precursor 5'-pseudouridine monophosphate (5'-Ψ-MP) is supplied chiefly through the action of MalD, a TruD-like pseudouridine synthase. In vitro assays showed that MalO is an enoylpyruvyltransferase acting almost exclusively on 5'-Ψ-MP rather than 5'-UMP, while in contrast the counterpart enzyme NikO in the nikkomycin pathway readily accepts either substrate. As a result, deletion of malD in S. chromofuscus coupled with introduction of the gene for NikO led to production of non-natural N-malayamycin, as well as malayamycin A. Conversely, cloning malO into the nikkomycin producer Streptomyces tendae in place of nikO diverted biosynthesis toward C-nucleoside formation.