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  • Endocannabinoid hydrolysis inhibition unmasks that unsaturated fatty acids induce a robust biosynthesis of 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol and its congeners in human myeloid leukocytes.

Endocannabinoid hydrolysis inhibition unmasks that unsaturated fatty acids induce a robust biosynthesis of 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol and its congeners in human myeloid leukocytes.

FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (2020-02-06)
Caroline Turcotte, Anne-Sophie Archambault, Élizabeth Dumais, Cyril Martin, Marie-Renée Blanchet, Elyse Bissonnette, Nami Ohashi, Keiko Yamamoto, Toshimasa Itoh, Michel Laviolette, Alain Veilleux, Louis-Philippe Boulet, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Nicolas Flamand
ABSTRACT

The endocannabinoid (eCB) 2-arachidonoyl-gycerol (2-AG) modulates immune responses by activating cannabinoid receptors or through its multiple metabolites, notably eicosanoids. Thus, 2-AG hydrolysis inhibition might represent an interesting anti-inflammatory strategy that would simultaneously increase the levels of 2-AG and decrease those of eicosanoids. Accordingly, 2-AG hydrolysis inhibition increased 2-AG half-life in neutrophils. Under such setting, neutrophils, eosinophils, and monocytes synthesized large amounts of 2-AG and other monoacylglycerols (MAGs) in response to arachidonic acid (AA) and other unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs). Arachidonic acid and UFAs were ~1000-fold more potent than G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists. Triascin C and thimerosal, which, respectively, inhibit fatty acyl-CoA synthases and acyl-CoA transferases, prevented the UFA-induced MAG biosynthesis, implying glycerolipid remodeling. 2-AG and other MAG biosynthesis was preceded by that of the corresponding lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). However, we could not directly implicate LPA dephosphorylation in MAG biosynthesis. While GPCR agonists poorly induced 2-AG biosynthesis, they inhibited that induced by AA by 25%-50%, suggesting that 2-AG biosynthesis is decreased when leukocytes are surrounded by a pro-inflammatory entourage. Our data strongly indicate that human leukocytes use AA and UFAs to biosynthesize biologically significant concentrations of 2-AG and other MAGs and that hijacking the immune system with 2-AG hydrolysis inhibitors might diminish inflammation in humans.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Resiquimod, ≥98% (HPLC)
Supelco
2-Palmitoylglycerol, analytical standard