This article presents the potential of PLGA nanoparticles for the oral administration of drugs. Different strategies are used to improve oral absorption of these nanoparticles. These strategies are based on modification of nanoparticle surface properties. They can be achieved either by coating the nanoparticle surface with stabilizing hydrophilic bioadhesive polymers or surfactants, or by incorporating biodegradable copolymers containing a hydrophilic moiety. Some substances such as chitosan, vitamin E, methacrylates, lectins, lecithins, bile salts and RGD molecules are employed for this purpose. Of especial interest are nanoparticles production methods and, in order to improve oral bioavailability, the mechanism of each additive.