• Quantitation of vitamin K1 in serum using online SPE-LC-MS/MS and the challenges of working with vitamin K.

Quantitation of vitamin K1 in serum using online SPE-LC-MS/MS and the challenges of working with vitamin K.

Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences (2019-04-18)
Ida Boegh Andersen, Claus Lohman Brasen, Jonna Skov Madsen, Anne Schmedes

Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) is one of the vitamin Ks. Several studies have previously investigated the role of vitamin K1 status in respect to disease, but without consistent results. Since vitamin K deficiency has been associated with different disease states it is important to develop a biochemical analysis with sufficient sensitivity and a low limit of quantitation (LOQ). The vitamin Ks are very fat-soluble. This non-polar nature has given rise to several challenges during the method development, because vitamin K1 sticks to materials used during the process and is lost during evaporation. We found that reducing the sample preparation as much as possible offline, instead using online SPE-LC-MS/MS improves recovery and gives satisfactory chromatograms. An Protein BEH C4 column, 300 Å (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm particle size) was used as trap column and a Phenyl-Hexyl-LC-column, 100 Å (100 × 2.1 mm, 2.6 μm particle size) was used as analytical column. The mobile phases consisted of 30 μmol/L NH4F in water and 30 μmol/L NH4F in MeOH. A triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) ion source, positive ion mode, was used to perform the mass spectrometric measurements. The method is simple, highly sensitive and fast. The method was validated for vitamin K1 with good analytical performance. With a LOQ of 0.05 nmol/L it is to our knowledge the vitamin K1 method with lowest LOQ reported to date in the literature. It can easily be automated and applied in a routine diagnostic laboratory. Blood collection tubes with different additives were tested and showed no difference. Stability of vitamin K1 in serum was tested at different temperatures (-20 °C, 4 °C and in light and dark at 20 °C over a period of 30 days) and showed that vitamin K1 is light sensitive in serum even after only one day.

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LC-Pak® Polisher, Placed at the point of dispense of Milli-Q® IQ/EQ 7 series water systems. Suitable for HPLC, UHPLC, LC-MS and LC-MS/MS analyses.