MilliporeSigma
  • Natural compounds as angiogenic enzyme thymidine phosphorylase inhibitors: In vitro biochemical inhibition, mechanistic, and in silico modeling studies.

Natural compounds as angiogenic enzyme thymidine phosphorylase inhibitors: In vitro biochemical inhibition, mechanistic, and in silico modeling studies.

PloS one (2019-11-20)
Sumaira Javaid, Muniza Shaikh, Narjis Fatima, M Iqbal Choudhary
ABSTRACT

Natural flora is the richest source of novel therapeutic agents due to their immense chemical diversity and novel biological properties. In this regard, eighteen natural products belonging to different chemical classes were evaluated for their thymidine phosphorylase (TP) inhibitory activity. TP shares identity with an angiogenic protein platelet derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF). It assists tumor angiogenesis and is a key player in cancer progression, thus an ideal target to develop anti-angiogenic drugs. Eleven compounds 1-2, 5-10, 11, 15, and 18 showed a good to weak TP inhibitory activity (IC50 values between 44.0 to 420.3 μM), as compared to standards i.e. tipiracil (IC50 = 0.014 ± 0.002 μM) and 7-deazaxanthine (IC50 = 41.0 ± 1.63 μM). Kinetic studies were also performed on active compounds, in order to deduce the mechanism of ligand binding to enzyme. To get further insight into receptor protein (enzyme) and ligand interaction at atomic level, in- sillico studies were also performed. Active compounds were finally evaluated for cytotoxicity test against mouse fibroblast (3T3) cell line. Compound 18 (Masoprocol) showed a significant TP inhibitory activity (IC50 = 44.0 ± 0.5 μM). Kinetic studies showed that it inhibits the enzyme in a competitive manner (Ki = 25.6 ± 0.008 μM), while it adopts a binding pose different than the substrate thymidine. It is further found to be non-toxic in MTT cytotoxicity assay. This is the first report on TP inhibitory activity of several natural compounds, some of which may serve as leads for further research towards drug the development.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Tipiracil hydrochloride, ≥98% (HPLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
DMEM Complete Medium, with 2mM L-Glut, Sodium Pyruvate, and 10% FBS, DMEM Complete Medium contains DMEM high glucose medium with 2mM L-glut, sodium pyruvate, and 10% U.S. origin FBS. DMEM Complete Medium is a convenient sterile solution for the culture of primary mammalian cells including mouse and chicken cells, and a variety of normal and transformed cells.