The naproxen-degrading bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis B1(2015b) was immobilised onto loofah sponge and introduced into lab-scale trickling filters. The trickling filters constructed for this study additionally contained stabilised microflora from a functioning wastewater treatment plant to assess the behavior of introduced immobilized biocatalyst in a fully functioning bioremediation system. The immobilised cells degraded naproxen (1 mg/L) faster in the presence of autochthonous microflora than in a monoculture trickling filter. There was also abundant colonization of the loofah sponges by the microorganisms from the system. Analysis of the influence of an acute, short-term naproxen exposure on the indigenous community revealed a significant drop in its diversity and qualitative composition. Bioaugmentation was also not neutral to the microflora. Introducing a new microorganism and increasing the removal of the pollutant caused changes in the microbial community structure and species composition. The incorporation of the immobilised B1(2015b) was successful and the introduced strain colonized the basic carrier in the trickling filter after the complete biodegradation of the naproxen. As a result, the bioremediation system could potentially be used to biodegrade naproxen in the future.