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  • Concentration of non-myocyte proteins in arterial media of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy.

Concentration of non-myocyte proteins in arterial media of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy.

PloS one (2023-02-09)
Soo Jung Lee, Akhil Kondepudi, Kelly Z Young, Xiaojie Zhang, Naw May Pearl Cartee, Jijun Chen, Krystal Yujin Jang, Gang Xu, Jimo Borjigin, Michael M Wang
ABSTRACT

The most common inherited cause of vascular dementia and stroke, cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), is caused by mutations in NOTCH3. Post-translationally altered NOTCH3 accumulates in the vascular media of CADASIL arteries in areas of the vessels that exhibit profound cellular degeneration. The identification of molecules that concentrate in the same location as pathological NOTCH3 may shed light on processes that drive cytopathology in CADASIL. We performed a two phase immunohistochemical screen of markers identified in the Human Protein Atlas to identify new proteins that accumulate in the vascular media in a pattern similar to pathological NOTCH3. In phase one, none of 16 smooth muscle cell (SMC) localized antigens exhibited NOTCH3-like patterns of expression; however, several exhibited disease-dependent patterns of expression, with antibodies directed against FAM124A, GZMM, MTFR1, and ST6GAL demonstrating higher expression in controls than CADASIL. In contrast, in phase two of the study that included 56 non-SMC markers, two proteins, CD63 and CTSH, localized to the same regions as pathological NOTCH3, which was verified by VesSeg, a customized algorithm that assigns relative location of antigens within the layers of the vessel. Proximity ligation assays support complex formation between NOTCH3 fragments and CD63 in degenerating CADASIL media. Interestingly, in normal mouse brain, the two novel CADASIL markers, CD63 and CTSH, are expressed in non-SMC vascular cells. The identification of new proteins that concentrate in CADASIL vascular media demonstrates the utility of querying publicly available protein databases in specific neurological diseases and uncovers unexpected, non-SMC origins of pathological antigens in small vessel disease.

MATERIALS
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