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  • Characterization and comparison of the mode of cell death, apoptosis versus necrosis, induced by 7beta-hydroxycholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol in the cells of the vascular wall.

Characterization and comparison of the mode of cell death, apoptosis versus necrosis, induced by 7beta-hydroxycholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol in the cells of the vascular wall.

Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology (1999-05-14)
G Lizard, S Monier, C Cordelet, L Gesquière, V Deckert, S Gueldry, L Lagrost, P Gambert
ABSTRACT

Oxidized low density lipoproteins (LDLs) play a central role in atherosclerosis, and their toxicity is due, at least in part, to the formation of oxysterols that have been shown to induce apoptosis in various cell types. As 7beta-hydroxycholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol are the major oxysterols found in oxidized LDLs, we have investigated and compared the mode of cell death, apoptosis versus necrosis, that they induce in the cells of the vascular wall, ie, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts. To this end, human vascular endothelial cells from umbilical cord veins (HUVECs), human artery smooth muscle cells, A7R5 rat smooth muscle cells, MRC5 human fibroblasts, and human fibroblasts isolated from umbilical cord veins were taken at confluence and incubated for 48 hours with 7beta-hydroxycholesterol or 7-ketocholesterol (concentration range, 5 to 80 microg/mL). In all cells, both 7beta-hydroxycholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol exhibited toxic effects characterized by a loss of cell adhesion and an increased permeability to propidium iodide. In oxysterol-treated endothelial and smooth muscle cells, typical features of apoptosis were revealed: condensed and/or fragmented nuclei were detected by fluorescence microscopy after staining with Hoechst 33342, oligonucleosomal DNA fragments were visualized in situ in the cell nuclei by the TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) method, and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation was found on agarose gel. In contrast, in oxysterol-treated fibroblasts, fragmented and/or condensed nuclei were never revealed, and no DNA fragmentation was observed either by the TUNEL method or by DNA analysis on agarose gel, indicating that these oxysterols induced necrosis in these cells but not apoptosis. In addition, acetylated Asp-Glu-Val-L-aspartic acid aldehyde (an inhibitor of Asp-Glu-Val-L-aspartic acid-sensitive caspases) prevented 7beta-hydroxycholesterol- and 7-ketocholesterol-induced cell death in HUVECs and smooth muscle cells but not in fibroblasts. Thus, 7beta-hydroxycholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol have dual cytotoxic effects on the cells of the vascular wall by their ability to induce apoptosis in endothelial and smooth muscle cells and necrosis in fibroblasts.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
7β-Hydroxycholesterol, ≥95%