Shear stress regulates endothelial microparticle release.

Circulation research (2013-03-29)
Anne-Clémence Vion, Bhama Ramkhelawon, Xavier Loyer, Gilles Chironi, Cecile Devue, Gervaise Loirand, Alain Tedgui, Stéphanie Lehoux, Chantal M Boulanger

Endothelial activation and apoptosis release membrane-shed microparticles (EMP) that emerge as important biological effectors. Because laminar shear stress (SS) is a major physiological regulator of endothelial survival, we tested the hypothesis that SS regulates EMP release. EMP levels were quantified by flow cytometry in medium of endothelial cells subjected to low or high SS (2 and 20 dyne/cm(2)). EMP levels augmented with time in low SS conditions compared with high SS conditions. This effect was sensitive to extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and Rho kinases inhibitors but unaffected by caspase inhibitors. Low SS-stimulated EMP release was associated with increased endothelial Rho kinases and ERK1/2 activities and cytoskeletal reorganization. Overexpression of constitutively active RhoA stimulated EMP release under high SS. We also examined the effect of nitric oxide (NO) in mediating SS effects. L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME), but not D-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester, increased high SS-induced EMP levels by 3-fold, whereas the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine (SNAP) decreased it. L-NAME and SNAP did not affect Rho kinases and ERK1/2 activities. Then, we investigated NO effect on membrane remodeling because microparticle release is abolished in ABCA1-deficient cells. ABCA1 expression, which was greater under low SS than under high SS, was augmented by L-NAME under high SS and decreased by SNAP under low SS conditions. Altogether, these results demonstrate that sustained atheroprone low SS stimulates EMP release through activation of Rho kinases and ERK1/2 pathways, whereas atheroprotective high SS limits EMP release in a NO-dependent regulation of ABCA1 expression and of cytoskeletal reorganization. These findings, therefore, identify endothelial SS as a physiological regulator of microparticle release.

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Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, ≥97% (TLC), powder