MilliporeSigma

Sleep drives metabolite clearance from the adult brain.

Science (New York, N.Y.) (2013-10-19)
Lulu Xie, Hongyi Kang, Qiwu Xu, Michael J Chen, Yonghong Liao, Meenakshisundaram Thiyagarajan, John O'Donnell, Daniel J Christensen, Charles Nicholson, Jeffrey J Iliff, Takahiro Takano, Rashid Deane, Maiken Nedergaard
ABSTRACT

The conservation of sleep across all animal species suggests that sleep serves a vital function. We here report that sleep has a critical function in ensuring metabolic homeostasis. Using real-time assessments of tetramethylammonium diffusion and two-photon imaging in live mice, we show that natural sleep or anesthesia are associated with a 60% increase in the interstitial space, resulting in a striking increase in convective exchange of cerebrospinal fluid with interstitial fluid. In turn, convective fluxes of interstitial fluid increased the rate of β-amyloid clearance during sleep. Thus, the restorative function of sleep may be a consequence of the enhanced removal of potentially neurotoxic waste products that accumulate in the awake central nervous system.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Tetramethylammonium chloride, reagent grade, ≥98%
Sigma-Aldrich
Tetramethylammonium hydroxide solution, 25 wt. % in methanol
Supelco
Tetramethylammonium sulfate, suitable for ion pair chromatography, LiChropur, ≥99.0% (T)
Supelco
Tetramethylammonium chloride, suitable for ion pair chromatography, LiChropur, ≥99.0% (AT)
Sigma-Aldrich
Tetramethylammonium hydroxide solution, 10 wt. % in H2O
Sigma-Aldrich
Tetramethylammonium hydroxide solution, 25 wt. % in H2O
Sigma-Aldrich
Tetramethylammonium hydroxide solution, ACS reagent
Sigma-Aldrich
Tetramethylammonium chloride, BioUltra, for molecular biology, ≥99.0% (AT)
Supelco
Tetramethylammonium bromide, suitable for ion pair chromatography, LiChropur, ≥99.0% (AT)
Sigma-Aldrich
Tetramethylammonium bromide, 98%
Sigma-Aldrich
Tetramethylammonium iodide, 99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Tetramethylammonium bromide, ACS reagent, ≥98.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Tetramethylammonium hydroxide pentahydrate, ≥97%
Sigma-Aldrich
Tetramethylammonium chloride solution, for molecular biology
Sigma-Aldrich
Tetramethylammonium hydroxide pentahydrate, ≥95.0% (T)