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  • Dimerization mediates thermo-adaptation, substrate affinity and transglycosylation in a highly thermostable maltogenic amylase of Geobacillus thermoleovorans.

Dimerization mediates thermo-adaptation, substrate affinity and transglycosylation in a highly thermostable maltogenic amylase of Geobacillus thermoleovorans.

PloS one (2013-09-27)
Deepika Mehta, Tulasi Satyanarayana
ABSTRACT

Maltogenic amylases belong to a subclass of cyclodextrin-hydrolyzing enzymes and hydrolyze cyclodextrins more efficiently than starch unlike typical α-amylases. Several bacterial malto-genic amylases with temperature optima of 40-60°C have been previously characterized. The thermo-adaption, substrate preferences and transglycosylation aspects of extremely thermostable bacterial maltogenic amylases have not yet been reported. The recombinant monomeric and dimeric forms of maltogenic α-amylase (Gt-Mamy) of the extremely thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus thermoleovorans are of 72.5 and 145 kDa, which are active optimally at 80°C. Extreme thermostability of this enzyme has been explained by analyzing far-UV CD spectra. Dimerization increases T1/2 of Gt-Mamy from 8.2 h to 12.63 h at 90°C and mediates its enthalpy-driven conformational thermostabilization. Furthermore, dime-rization regulates preferential substrate binding of the enzyme. The substrate preference switching of Gt-Mamy upon dimerization has been confirmed from the substrate-binding affinities of the enzyme for various high and low molecular weight substrates. There is an alteration in Km and substrate hydrolysis efficiency (Vmax/Km) of the enzyme (for cyclodex-trins/starch) upon dimerization. N-terminal truncation indicated the role of N-terminal 128 amino acids in the thermostabilization and modulation of substrate-binding affinity. This has been confirmed by molecular docking of β-cyclodextrin to Gt-Mamy that indicated the requirement of homodimer formation by the interaction of a few N-terminal residues of chain A with the catalytic residues of (α/β)8 barrel of chain B and vice-versa for stable cyclodextrin binding. Site directed mutagenesis provided evidence for the role of N-terminal D109 at the dimeric interface in substrate affinity modulation and thermostabilization. The dimeric Gt-Mamy transglycosylates hydrolytic products of G4/G5 and acarbose, while the truncated form does not because of the lack of extra sugar-binding space formed due to dimerization. N-terminal domain controls enthalpy-driven thermostabilization, substrate-binding affinity and transglycosylation activity of Gt-Mamy by homodimer formation.

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Amylase, Maltogenic from Bacillus sp.