Si-based Li-ion battery anodes offer specific capacity an order of magnitude beyond that of conventional graphite. However, the formation of stable Si anodes is a challenge because of significant volume changes occurring during their electrochemical alloying and dealloying with Li. Binder selection and optimization may allow significant improvements in the stability of Si-based anodes. Most studies of Si anodes have involved the use of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) binders. Herein, we show for the first time that pure poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), possessing certain mechanical properties comparable to those of CMC but containing a higher concentration of carboxylic functional groups, may offer superior performance as a binder for Si anodes. We further show the positive impact of carbon coating on the stability of the anode. The carbon-coated Si nanopowder anodes, tested between 0.01 and 1 V vs Li/Li+ and containing as little as 15 wt % of PAA, showed excellent stability during the first hundred cycles. The results obtained open new avenues to explore a novel series of binders from the polyvinyl acids (PVA) family.