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  • Synthesis and conformational analysis of a coumarinic acid-based cyclic prodrug of an opioid peptide with modified sensitivity to esterase-catalyzed bioconversion.

Synthesis and conformational analysis of a coumarinic acid-based cyclic prodrug of an opioid peptide with modified sensitivity to esterase-catalyzed bioconversion.

The journal of peptide research : official journal of the American Peptide Society (2002-04-26)
H Ouyang, D G Vander Velde, R T Borchardt, T J Siahaan
ABSTRACT

The coumarinic acid-based cyclic DADLE (H-Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-Phe-D-Leu-OH) prodrug 1a exhibited more favorable physicochemical properties than did DADLE for permeation across the intestinal mucosa. However, prodrug 1a, whose bioconversion to DADLE was slow, was subject to extensive biliary clearance when administered to rats in vivo. To increase the rate of esterase-catalyzed bioconversion of prodrug 1a, thus decreasing its biliary clearance, the oxymethyl-modified prodrug 1, in which an aldehyde equivalent is inserted between the phenolic group of the promoiety and the carboxylic acid group of the peptide, was synthesized from benzofuran-2-carboxylic acid 16 via a nine-step procedure. Briefly, phenacyl-protected 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-propynoic acid 17 was coupled with Boc-d-Leu-OCH(2)I 5 to give the intermediate 18, which was further elaborated and conjugated with tetrapeptide 4 to give linear precursor 2. Precursor 2 was then deprotected and cyclized to obtain compound 1 using a high dilution technique. In an attempt to investigate the effect of the physicochemical properties and the conformation of prodrug 1 on its permeation characteristics, we calculated its physicochemical parameters and determined its solution conformation using spectroscopic techniques (CD and NMR) and molecular dynamics simulations. Prodrug 1 showed a cLogP value and a molecular size similar to that of prodrug 1a. The deconvoluted CD spectra indicated that prodrug 1 has more random component (71%) than prodrug 1a (42%). 2D-NMR studies of prodrug 1 showed no signals for amide-amide hydrogen interactions and few ROE cross-peaks in ROESY spectra. Using distance restraints constructed from ROESY spectra, molecular dynamics simulations of prodrug 1 generated five conformation families. One family satisfied most of the distance restraints and all of the dihedral angles measured by NMR coupling constants. In summary, prodrug 1 showed favorable physicochemical properties for permeation of the intestinal mucosa. Prodrug 1 adopted a more random conformation in solution than prodrug 1a. These differences in solution conformation could affect the permeation of the prodrugs across the intestinal mucosa by passive diffusion and/or their ability to interact with efflux transporter(s) that would limit their transcellular permeation.

MATERIALS
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Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Benzofuran-2-carboxylic acid, 99%