Microphthalmia/anophthalmia is a clinically heterogeneous disorder of eye formation, ranging from small size of a single eye to complete bilateral absence of ocular tissues. The genetic defect underlying isolated autosomal recessive microphthalmia/anophthalmia is yet unclear. We studied four families (two of Arab origin, one of Bedouin origin, and one of Persian-Jewish origin) with autosomal recessive microphthalmia/anophthalmia and no associated eye anomalies, and one Syrian-Jewish family with associated colobomas. Assuming a founder effect in each of the families, we performed homozygosity mapping using polymorphic markers adjacent to human homologues of genes known to be associated with eye absence in various species, namely EYA1, EYA2, EYA3, SIX4, SIX6, PAX6 and CHX10. No association was found with EYA1, EYA2, EYA3, SIX6 or PAX6. In two families, linkage analysis was consistent with possible association with SIX4, but no mutations were found in the coding region of the gene or its flanking intron sequences. In three of the five families, linkage analysis followed by sequencing demonstrated that affected individuals in each family were homozygous for a different CHX10 aberration: a mutation in the CVC domain and a deletion of the homeobox domain were found in two Arab families, and a mutation in the donor-acceptor site in the first intron in the Syrian-Jewish family. There was phenotypic variation between families having different mutations, but no significant phenotypic variation within each family. It has been previously shown that mutations in a particular nucleotide in CHX10 are associated with an autosomal recessive syndrome of microphthalmia/anophthalmia with iris colobomas and cataracts in two families. We now show that different mutations in other domains of the same gene underlie isolated microphthalmia/anophthalmia.