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  • Cardiac metabolism, inflammation, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors modulated by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in diabetic rats.

Cardiac metabolism, inflammation, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors modulated by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in diabetic rats.

International journal of cardiology (2014-07-27)
Ting-I Lee, Yu-Hsun Kao, Yao-Chang Chen, Wen-Chin Tsai, Cheng-Chih Chung, Yi-Jen Chen
ABSTRACT

High free fatty acid with reduced glucose utilization in diabetes mellitus (DM) impairs cardiac function. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) modulate myocardial lipid and glucose homeostasis. The active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) regulates oxidative stress and inflammation, which may play a key role in the modulation of PPARs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether 1,25(OH)2D3 can modulate the cardiac PPARs and fatty acid metabolism. Electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, and Western blot analysis were used to evaluate cardiac fatty acid metabolism, inflammation, and PPAR isoform expression in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, DM rats, and DM rats treated with 1,25(OH)2D3. Compared to healthy rats, DM and 1,25(OH)2D3-treated DM rats had lower body weight. DM rats had larger left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, and longer QT interval than healthy or 1,25(OH)2D3-treated DM rats. Moreover, compared to healthy or 1,25(OH)2D3-treated DM rats, DM rats had fewer cardiac PPAR-α and PPAR-δ protein expressions, but had increased cardiac PPAR-γ protein levels, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinaseα2, phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, PPAR-γ coactivator 1-α, cluster of differentiation 36, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 protein expressions. 1,25(OH)2D3 significantly changed the cardiac function and fatty acid regulations in DM hearts, which may be caused by its regulations on cardiac PPARs and proinflammatory cytokines.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 solution, 50 μg/mL in ethanol, 98% (CP)
Sigma-Aldrich
25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 solution, 5 μg/mL in ethanol, 98% (CP)
Sigma-Aldrich
25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 monohydrate, ≥99.0% (HPLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 solution, 100 μg/mL in ethanol, 98% (CP)
Sigma-Aldrich
25-Hydroxycholecalciferol, ≥98% (HPLC)
Supelco
25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 solution, 100 μg/mL in ethanol, ampule of 1 mL, certified reference material, Cerilliant®